What is muscle fatigue quizlet

What is muscle fatigue quizlet DEFAULT

Teach them a lesson they'll never forget! The Grip Force Experiment...

Run Muscle Fatigue Test

The question here is: "How can we explain the decline in maximal force during a sustained contraction?"

This phenomenon is called "muscle fatigue".

Before you begin

Ensure the volunteer can see the computer screen where their signal will appear.

Procedure

  1. Begin recording. Ask the volunteer to apply and maintain 25% of their maximal grip strength while watching the recorded trace. Enter "25%" in as a comment or label on the recording.
  2. After 25 s, tell the volunteer to relax and stop recording.
  3. Wait for 30 s to allow recovery of muscle function.
  4. Repeat steps 1–3 for contractions of 50%, 75%, and 100% of maximal grip strength. Add a comment for each trial.

Analysis

In this analysis students will determine how fatigue affects grip force at different intensities.

  1. Create a table like this: table
  2. Ask students to scroll to their 25% grip force data.
  3. Place a marker on the baseline just before the increase in force. Place the point selector at 1 s into the contraction. Note the change in grip force from the baseline.
  4. Note this value in the appropriate cell in the table (above).
  5. Repeat steps 2–3 for 5 s, 10 s, and 20 s into the contraction.
  6. Repeat steps 2–4 for 50%, 75%, and 100% grip force.

Check students’ understanding

Question: Did this experiment help you decide which of the factors proposed to explain fatigue are important?

Answer: You may have noticed that there is a greater decline in your volunteer's grip force during the more strenuous contractions (75%, 100%) compared with the less strenuous contractions (25%, 50%). This is with "visual feedback" present, where the volunteer can see the decline, and can attempt to correct for it. There is clearly more fatigue occurring during the more strenuous contractions. A decline in "central drive" will also have affected some of the results.

Run Force With Encouragement Test

The question for students here is: "Can we alter the extent of muscle fatigue by verbal encouragement, or brief rests?"

Before you begin

Ensure the volunteer cannot see the computer screen where their signal will appear.

Procedure

Encouragement

  1. Start recording, and ask the volunteer to produce a sustained maximal contraction (100% grip force).
  2. After 8–10 s or when the force has obviously declined, enter the comment/label “Encouragement” and immediately instruct the volunteer to try harder.
  3. After a further 8–10 s, reenter the comment “Encouragement” and then repeat the encouragement.
  4. Repeat step 3, so the volunteer has been encouraged a total of 3 times.
  5. A few seconds later, ask the volunteer to relax and stop recording.

Rest

  1. Start recording.
  2. Ask the volunteer to produce a sustained maximal contraction (100%).
  3. After 8–10 s enter the comment / label “Rest”, and instruct the volunteer to relax very briefly (~0.5 s) and then return to maximal contraction.
  4. Repeat step 3 another 2 times, so the volunteer has rested for a total of 3 times.
  5. After 30–40 s, stop recording.

Analysis

In this analysis students will determine the effects of encouragement and brief rest on sustained maximal grip force.

  1. Create a table like this:table
  2. On the recording, have the students scroll to the comment "Encouragement".
  3. Note the value at the beginning of the first contraction. Note the value at the lowest point just before the first "encouragement". Calculate the change in grip force.
  4. Enter the value into the appropriate cell in the table.
  5. Repeat steps 2–3 for each trial, (using the values just after the period of encouragement, and the value just before the following period of encouragement to calculate the change in grip force).
  6. Repeat steps 2–4 for the periods of rest.

Check students’ understanding

Question: From your data, do you think that verbal encouragement or brief rests limited the extent of muscle fatigue?

Answer: Encouragement and brief rests have been shown to limit fatigue to some extent during sustained maximal grip force.

Question: During sustained skeletal muscle contraction, can you think of three places in which true fatigue might occur?

Answer: The main place true fatigue is likely to arise from is the skeletal muscle cell, in which:

A reduction in Ca2+ ion release (due to depletion of Ca2+ ions from intracellular stores) could potentially inhibit excitation-contraction coupling, or

Metabolic changes in the muscle cell (such as build up of lactic acid which can make the skeletal muscle acidic, inhibiting any further anaerobic glycolysis), which is more likely to occur in extreme exercise.

Actual muscle fatigue may not just arise in the skeletal muscle cell. It could also occur at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), possibly due to depletion of acetylcholine stores or decreased sensitivity (desensitization) of ACh receptors, resulting in decreased effectiveness of neuromuscular transmission. It may also occur due to a reduction in blood flow (and hence limited O2) to the muscle owing to compression of blood vessels..

Run Visual Feedback Test

The question for students here is: "What effect does visual feedback have on the ability to maintain a grip contraction with constant force?"

Before you begin

Ensure the volunteer can see the computer screen. Allow the volunteer to use their other hand if gripping the transducer has become painful.

Procedure

  1. Start recording. Ask the volunteer to produce a 50% contraction while watching the trace.
  2. After 20 s add the comment / label “eyes closed”. Ask the volunteer to close his or her eyes and attempt to maintain exactly the same contraction force for the next 20 s.
  3. Write the comment / label "eyes open" and add this as you ask the volunteer to open his or her eyes and adjust the contraction force back to 50%.
  4. When adjusted to 50%, stop recording.

Analysis

In this analysis students will determine how visual feedback affects sustained maximal grip force.

For the analysis, create a table like this:

table

Visual feedback

  1. Have students scroll to the visual feedback data.
  2. Note the value near the beginning of the contraction when it has reached 50%.
    Note the value directly before the "eyes closed" comment.
    Calculate the change in grip force and note this value.
  3. Enter the value into the appropriate cell in the table.

Without visual feedback

  1. Note the value just after the "eyes closed" comment.
    Note the value just before the "eyes open" comment.
    Calculate the change in grip force and note this value.
  2. Enter the value into the appropriate cell in the table.

Check students’ understanding

Question: Examine the data recorded when the volunteer attempted to maintain a 50% contraction with their eyes shut.

Almost all volunteers will show a declining force (pseudo-fatigue) while their eyes are shut that is very similar to actual fatigue. This is not true fatigue because the full 50% force can be exerted easily, as can be seen when the volunteer's eyes are opened again. What explanations can you think of for pseudo-fatigue?

Answer: In the absence of information on the actual force produced, the internal sensation of fatigue can predominate and lead to a decline in the force generated.

Sours: https://www.adinstruments.com/blog/teach-them-lesson-theyll-never-forget-grip-force-experiment

What's to know about hypervitaminosis D?

Hypervitaminosis D is a rare but potentially serious condition. It occurs when you take in too much vitamin D. It’s usually the result of taking high-dose vitamin D supplements.

Too much vitamin D can cause abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood. This can affect bones, tissues, and other organs. It can lead to high blood pressure, bone loss, and kidney damage if not treated.

Causes

You probably aren’t getting too much vitamin D from the foods you eat or from exposure to the sun. However, there have been cases reported due to . And there has been an increase in overall hypervitaminosis D cases in the past few years.

It is usually due to taking more than the recommended daily value of vitamin D. If you take a multivitamin, look at the amount of vitamin D in it. You may not need to take additional calcium and vitamin D if you’re getting enough vitamin D from your multivitamin.

Some prescription medications used to treat high blood pressure (thiazide diuretics) and heart diseases (digoxin) can cause an increase in vitamin D in the blood.

Estrogen therapy, taking antacids for a long time, and isoniazide, an antituberculosis medication, can also cause elevated levels of vitamin D.

The Mayo Clinic states that the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin D for most adults is 600 international units a day (IU). Doctors may prescribe higher doses to treat medical conditions such as vitamin D deficiency, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, for a short period of time. Daily use of high-dose vitamin D supplements for several months is toxic.

You are more likely to develop hypervitaminosis D if you take vitamin D supplements and have other existing health problems, such as:

  • kidney disease
  • liver disease
  • tuberculosis
  • hyperparathyroidism
  • sarcoidosis
  • histoplasmosis

Symptoms

Excessive amounts of vitamin D in the body can cause calcium levels in the blood to rise. This can lead to a condition called hypercalcemia (too much calcium in your blood). Symptoms include:

  • fatigue
  • loss of appetite
  • weight loss
  • excessive thirst
  • excessive urination
  • dehydration
  • constipation
  • irritability, nervousness
  • ringing in the ear (tinnitus)
  • muscle weakness
  • nausea, vomiting
  • dizziness
  • confusion, disorientation
  • high blood pressure
  • heart arrhythmias

Long-term complications of untreated hypervitaminosis D include:

  • kidney stones
  • kidney damage
  • kidney failure
  • excess bone loss
  • calcification (hardening) or arteries and soft tissues

In addition, increased blood calcium can cause abnormal heart rhythms.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will review your medical history and may ask about any prescription and over-the-counter medications and supplements you’re taking.

Your doctor may also perform a physical exam and ask questions about your symptoms. If your doctor suspects that you may have hypervitaminosis D, they may order tests, including:

  • blood tests to check vitamin D levels, calcium, and phosphorus (to determine if kidney damage is present)
  • urine tests to check for excessive amounts of calcium in the urine
  • bone X-rays to determine if there’s significant bone loss

Treatment

Your doctor will likely advise you to stop taking vitamin D supplements immediately. They may also recommend that you reduce the amount of calcium in your diet temporarily. In some cases, corticosteroids or bisphosphonates may suppress the release of calcium from your bones.

Your doctor will monitor your vitamin D levels frequently until they return to normal.

Prevention

Discontinuing or lowering your intake of high-dose vitamin D supplements can prevent hypervitaminosis D. The tolerable upper limit, or the maximum daily intake of vitamin D that is unlikely to result in any health risks, has been set at 4,000 IUs per day. Adverse effects have been seen in those taking less than 10,000 IUs per day over an extended period of time.

Your doctor may also recommend that you lower the amount of calcium in your diet. Careful monitoring is necessary until your vitamin D levels are back to normal.

To ingest vitamin D naturally, you can eat foods that are rich in it, including:

  • cod liver oil
  • fatty fish, such as salmon and tuna
  • beef liver
  • cheese
  • egg yolks
  • some mushrooms

You can also find foods fortified with vitamin D, including milk, orange juice, and yogurt. Moderate exposure to sunlight is another source of natural vitamin D. Fifteen minutes or less with your extremities exposed in direct sunlight, before putting on sunscreen, is a great way to improve your vitamin D level naturally.

Sours: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318415
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Muscle fatigue: general understanding and treatment

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Causes of Muscle Fatigue - Coursera Science of Exercise

Experiment: EMGs during Muscle Fatigue


Background

Our muscle system is the largest system in our body (40%-50% of our weight). This system includes your heart, which is a pump made of specialized cardiac muscle, and the smooth muscles in your guts, allowing food to move.

But to make voluntary actions such as lifting a soldering iron or kicking a soccer ball, you use your skeletal muscles! Your skeletal muscles allow you to do all the wonderful movements with which you pass your days. Your muscles contract and enable movement by sliding microscopic actin and myosin protein filaments across each other, with a full support cast of other players including proteins (troponin and tropomyosin), ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+), energy carriers (ATP), and blood circulation to deliver O2 and remove CO2.

Each of your muscles is subdivided into functional groups of muscle fibers called motor units (Again, see our Introduction to EMG's experiment). A motor unit is a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates. To achieve great things, like lifting a heavy weight, motor units join together in a systematic way to supply the force required to achieve strength. This teamwork among motor units is called "Orderly Recruitment" by scientists, and as stated before, motor units with the smallest number of muscle fibers begin contracting first during a movement, followed by the motor units with the largest number of fibers afterward, to allow for a smooth, strong muscle contraction.

In addition, a motor unit can be recruited to replace an already active motor unit that is experiencing fatigue.

So...how does this all relate to your muscles getting tired?

Muscle Fatigue

When a muscle cell fires an action potential due to a motor neuron command, this causes a release of calcium (Ca2+) inside the muscle fiber from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The Ca2+ then flows into the area where the actin and myosin is (the sarcomere), initiating a complex cellular reaction with ATP that allows the myosin to pull on the actin. The movement of myosin pulling on actin in the sarcomeres is called a "sliding filament model" and consists of 4 steps.

As long as calcium and ATP are available, the actin and myosin will continue pulling on each other and the twitching will continue. Note that the calcium is rapidly transported back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum where the process must be initiated again by the muscle firing an action potential to cause another twitch. The summing together of many of these incredibly tiny "pulling events" produces a twitch (a very tiny, very fast force). When many twitches occur in a row, the twitches sum together and produce a larger force. ATP is continually provided in the muscle by breaking down glucose (see our "Oxygen Experiment" for an explanation of this metabolism. If glucose isn't available, fatty acids can be used to make pyruvate and keep the Krebs cycle and the oxidative phosphorylation pathway operating. As long as oxygen (O2) is present and can be readily transported to the muscle cell, the oxidative phosphorylation pathway can produce ATP at incredible rates. This is called aerobic contraction, meaning "using oxygen."

Muscle Fatigue occurs when the muscle experiences a reduction in its ability to produce force and accomplish the desired movement. The factors that explain fatigue are complex and after more than 100 years of investigation are still a topic of active research.

For example, short term fatigue (failure to lift a heavy weight, do more push-ups, etc.) is different than long term fatigue such as as a marathon run, a 100 mile bicycle ride, or a full-day hike through the Rocky Mountains of Colorado.

We do understand though some of the basic reasons that muscles become fatigued during high intensity exercise, most notably that the demand for oxygen can be greater than the supply. The blood flow to the muscle can be reduced because of 1) muscles intensely contracting can reduce blood flow and thus oxygen availability, or 2) the muscle is simply working so intensely that there literally is not enough oxygen to meet demand (a sprint at top speed).

If such O2 isn't available as an electron acceptor , the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain cannot operate, and the muscle must gain ATP from other sources. For example, for rapid, intense activity, phosphocreatine (synthesized from amino acids) can serve as a phosphate donor to allow ATP formation. This is called anaerobic contraction, meaning "not using oxygen."

However, anaerobic contraction can lead to build-up of metabolites and waste products, and a significant increase in the acidity (decreased pH) inside the muscle cell, which can interfere with the many biochemical reactions necessary for the actin and myosin to produce force and slide against each other. This chemical change is thought to be the cause of the "stinging" or burning sensation you feel in your muscles as you become fatigued (such as in arm wrestling or in the last few reps of a difficult weight lifting set).

We can observe the effects of these fatigue processes, albeit indirectly, by examining the amplitude of the EMG signal during a muscle contraction. As fatigue progresses, 1) the firing rate of motor neurons drops, which in turn drops the number of action potentials the muscles themselves then fire, leading to a reduction in strength, and 2) muscles can often also continue generating action potentials due to neural drive, but the muscle is unable to contract due to molecular fatigue events in the muscle fibers, which in turn leads to a reduction in strength.

Downloads

Before you begin, make sure you have the Backyard Brains Spike Recorder installed on your computer/smartphone/tablet. The Backyard Brains Spike Recorder program allows you to visualize and save the data on your computer when doing experiments. We have also built a simple lab handout to help you tabulate your data.

Spike Recorder Computer Software

Video

Experiment

[Note: In truth you can use any muscle you like for this experiment, as long as you can figure out how to produce fatigue in that muscle in a controlled fashion.]

Isometric biceps hold

  1. Hook up your EMG patch electrodes to your bicep, plug the electrodes into your Muscle SpikerBox, and hook up your SpikerBox to either your mobile software or PC.
  2. Select a dumbbell that is at about 60% of your maximum lifting weight. Depending on your strength, this will be ~10-25 lbs (~5-12 kg). With your back to a wall to control your posture and arm position, hold the weight in your hand for as long as you can, with your elbow at a 90 degree angle. This is called an "isometric" contraction since your muscles are working, but your joints are not moving. [Note: you will probably find that your wrist gets tired faster than your bicep. You can avoid this problem by hanging a weight off your wrist rather than holding the dumbbell in your hand (see video above).]
  3. Record your EMG during this task using SpikeRecorder on tablet/smartphone or your computer.
  4. Observe the amplitude (height) and firing rate (number of impulses) in the EMG. What do you see over time? The gross signal may look similar to this:
Hand Gripper Isometric Test
  1. Connect the EMG electrode patches to your inner forearm and hook up the cables and SpikerBox as previously noted.
  2. Use a hand-dynamometer or hand gripper (you should buy one in the 50-100 lb (25-45 kg) range), and squeeze the grip for as hard as you can for as long as you can.
  3. Record your EMG during this task and observe the amplitude and firing rate as before.

Science Fair Project Ideas

  • Sometimes, when hiking in your favorite park (like the Wonderland Trail or Torres del Paine), you find, even if you are not very fit, you can hike for 6-10 hours. However, if you tried to lift a 100 pound (45 kg) barbells repeatedly, you would rapidly get tired within 5-30 reps over a couple minutes depending on your athletic ability. Why is the time scale of fatigue so different in these two activities?
  • Try the biceps and forearms fatigue tests on both arms and hands to see if you observe anything different. As you know, you have a dominant arm/hand (left-handed vs right-handed). Is your dominant arm/hand stronger or more fatigue resistant than the other?
  • How can two muscles that are about the same size be so different in their fatigue properties? We didn't cover it here, but you can begin reading about slow twitch and fast twitch muscle fibers to learn more.
  • Are there muscles that are very fatigue resistant? Can you give us some examples?
  • Work out your biceps for a month at your school gym. Measure your fatigue time and EMG changes before the period of training and after the period training using the same test load/force.
Sours: https://backyardbrains.com/experiments/fatigue

Is fatigue what quizlet muscle

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Light enters through the cornea past the iris through the pupil refracted by the lens and onto the retina of the eye. When the cow was alive, the cornea was clear. 1 Identify the (a) structure of. You should be able to find the sclera, or the whites of the eye. Human Cranial Vault 1. occurs when the muscle is relaxed. This resource includes: a step-by-step, hints and tips, a cow eye primer, and a glossary of terms. Play this game to review undefined. The sclera ranges in thickness from about 0. Detachable side protectors (e. Your Skills & Rank. Use clean, lukewarm tap water for at least 20 minutes. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Rate 5 stars …. 7 months ago. This part of the eye sends messages to the brain. We start at …. Sep 11, 2020 · Chemical splash in the eye: First aid. Start studying 1 - Labeling Quiz (Planes, Cavities, Anatomical Regions, Directions). Label Parts of the Human Ear. Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are. The lens is attached to the ciliary body by ligaments. People say that the eyes are the windows to a person’s soul. KNOW THE OPTIONS. Lens: The lens is a clear part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light, or an image, on the retina. Label the eye. The Google Doc linked below is a paper version of the labeling that has a word bank at the bottom of the sheet. In your cow’s eye, the cornea may be cloudy. Select One Auditory Canal Cochlea Cochlear Nerve Eustachian Tube Incus Malleus Oval Window Pinna Round Window Semicircular Canals Stapes Tympanic Membrane Vestibular Nerve. This part of the eye allows light into the eye. This resource contains 2 worksheets for students to (1) label the parts of the human eye and (2) label the parts of the human ear. What is number 1 This quiz is incomplete! To play this quiz, please finish editing it. Image: Eyeball (binary/octet-stream) Answer. muscle surrounding the eye. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. One of our favorite ways to get to grips with all of the parts of the eye is by utilizing labeled diagrams. The Virtual Eye Dissection is an excellent follow-up to learning structures on a model when you don’t have the ability to perform a real dissection in class. Ear Tutorial at Wisc-Online. Pop Quiz: Anatomy 4. How much did you get to understand about the human eye?. a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening. Causes of eye strain include staring for an extended time at digital devices (computers, cell phones, or video games), reading, driving, or activities in low light. virtreous humor. Label the eye. Part 2: The Eye. About this Quiz. Description. There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. Select One Auditory Canal Cochlea Cochlear Nerve Eustachian Tube Incus Malleus Oval Window Pinna Round Window Semicircular Canals Stapes Tympanic Membrane Vestibular Nerve. After reading each question below, click on the “pop-up” box after the question to activate it. File comes as both a PDF for printing and a Microsoft Word document for editing or for a digital classroom where students can drag and drop the answers where they belong or type in. Top Quizzes with Similar Tags. Flex Your Muscles! A Close Look at the Biceps. These create a film which covers the white of the eye and the cornea. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. File comes …. Quizlet: Eye Anatomy. Part 2: The Eye. From the quiz author Title Says It ALL!!!!. Choose from 500 different sets of anatomy eye flashcards on quizlet. In your cow’s eye, the cornea may be cloudy. There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. How much did you get to understand about the human eye?. Digits of Pi 345. Lab Guide: Ear and Ear - list of all the structures you must know. Label the …. When the cow was alive, the cornea was clear. Use clean, lukewarm tap water for at least 20 minutes. Boxing Biomolecules – A Game for Organics. Eye Coloring | …. It is located in the center of the retina. Extrinsic eye muscle matching Specify each featured eye muscle by selecting its corresponding label. Flush your eye with water. The nerve at the back of the eye that transports electric signals to the brain. Examine the outside of the eye. After reading each question below, click on the “pop-up” box after the question to activate it. Description. This is an online quiz called Label the Eye There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. Retina: It is the innermost layer of the eye. The Eye - Science Quiz: Our eyes are highly specialized organs that take in the light reflected off our surroundings and transform it into electrical impulses to send …. Each part plays a vital role in our hearing. 1 label these parts of the lacrimal apparatus 2 3 Laboratory Exercise 22 Figure 22. The graph of the length-tension relationship illustrates _______. Quickly memorize the terms phrases and much more. Start studying Label the Eye. Found within two cavities in the skull known as the orbits, the eyes are surrounded by several supporting structures including …. Play this game to review undefined. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The graph of the length-tension relationship illustrates _______. Human Muscle Anatomy 18. About this Quiz. in this video we're going to talk about the structure of the eye and we're going to do that by drawing a cross sectional diagram of the eyeball the first thing we're going to draw is the white part of the eye which is known as the sclera so I'm just drawing that in and I'm labeling sclera and the sclera is a thick fibrous tissue that basically forms the substance of the eyeball so the white. Eye Coloring | Ear & Eye Coloring Label the Eye. If you want to change an answer, click on that box again and select another choice. This part of the eye allows light into the eye. Part 2: The Eye. Lens: The lens is a clear part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light, or an image, on the retina. 7 months ago. This eye represents a common mammalian eye. 102 (a) (2) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses eye protection that provides side protection when there is a hazard from flying objects. Optic Nerve. Use whichever of these approaches is quickest: Get into the shower and aim a gentle stream of water on your forehead over your affected eye. Ear Labeling Image | Ear Coloring. Lab Guide: Ear and Ear - list of all the structures you must know. The Eye - Science Quiz: Our eyes are highly specialized organs that take in the light reflected off our surroundings and transform it into electrical impulses to send …. This is an online quiz called Eye Labeling - As Specialized Part of Nervous System - Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology, Chapter 12 From the quiz author Correctly identify presented term. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Notes: 10: The Eye. After reading each question below, click on the “pop-up” box after the question to activate it. 7 months ago. The resting length of the muscle _______. 1 label these parts of the lacrimal apparatus 2 3 Laboratory Exercise 22 Figure 22. What term means that the lens can change shape so that the eye can focus on items either close at hand or far away?. Introduce anatomy by making a chalk outline and placing cards in the location …. The nerve at the back of the eye that transports electric signals to the brain. Begins at the front of the eye attaching to the bony structure near the nose moves backward on the underside of the globe and attaches in the back of the eye. Learn how to dissect a cow's eye in your classroom. Eye Quiz #1 Eye Quiz #2 | Eye Quiz #3 Eye Anatomy, Physiology & Pathology of the Human Eye Ted M. The internal components of an eye are: Lens: It is a transparent, biconvex, lens of an eye. 1 Identify the (a) structure of …. The 10 most popular quizzes : 1 - the skeleton: test your knowledge of the bones of the full skeleton. Then click on the answer you believe is correct. Found within two cavities in the skull known as the orbits, the eyes are surrounded by several supporting structures including …. It is located in the center of the retina. Ear Labeling Image | Ear Coloring. The lens along …. When the cow was alive, the cornea was clear. Quickly memorize the terms phrases and much more. Optic nerve. Boxing Biomolecules – A Game for Organics. Head-to-Toe Blitz 4. Start studying 1 - Labeling Quiz (Planes, Cavities, Anatomical Regions, Directions). After reading each question below, click on the “pop-up” box after the question to activate it. The nerve at the back of the eye that transports electric signals to the brain. Human eye anatomy quiz diagram labeling, eye anatomy model, interactive eye diagram quiz. You should be able to find the covering over the front of the eye (the cornea). Top Quizzes with Similar Tags. This is an online quiz called Eye Labeling. Wild Cats Slideshow 440. Rate 5 stars …. This eye represents a common mammalian eye. It is light sensitive and acts as a film of a camera. Eye Quiz #1 Eye Quiz #2 | Eye Quiz #3 Eye Anatomy, Physiology & Pathology of the Human Eye Ted M. This resource contains 2 worksheets for students to (1) label the parts of the human eye and (2) label the parts of the human ear. The Recovery Cards Project is a collaboration between the Lift The Label campaign, people in recovery, and artists across Colorado and nationwide. Contact Kelly. clip-on or slide-on side shields) meeting the pertinent requirements of this section are acceptable. Light enters our eyes through the pupil, then passes through a lens and the fluid-filled vitreous. Human eye anatomy quiz diagram labeling, eye anatomy model, interactive eye diagram quiz. This eye represents a common mammalian eye. How to learn the parts of the eye. This is an online quiz called Eye Labeling Practice. The nerve at the back of the eye that transports electric signals to the brain. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Quizlet: Ear Anatomy | Ear Anatomy Model. What term means that the lens can change shape so that the eye can focus on items either close at hand or far away?. The lens along with the cornea refracts light so that it focuses on the retina. This is an online quiz called Eye Labeling. Identify the structure labeled #3. This is an exercise for students to label a simple blank eye diagram …. This part of the eye sends messages to the brain. of light entering the eye. Review Guide for Chapter Test. Start studying 1 - Labeling Quiz (Planes, Cavities, Anatomical Regions, Directions). The Ear - Science Quiz: Have you heard? Memorizing the parts of the ear isn’t difficult! Not when you use this quiz game, that is! The human ear is made up of three main parts, the outer, middle, and inner ear. Sep 11, 2020 · Chemical splash in the eye: First aid. Ear Labeling Image | Ear Coloring. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 3 millimeter (mm) to 1. Human Muscle Anatomy 18. Wild Cats Slideshow 440. 6 Skeletal Muscle Physiology. Choose from 500 different …. Quizlet: Eye Anatomy. Together, we’ve created free greeting cards that celebrate recovery, provide encouragement to those who need it and express gratitude to those who support others in their recovery. Notes: 10: The Eye. Laboratory Exercise 21 The eye and Vision Figure21. You should be able to find the covering over the front of the eye (the cornea). This resource includes: a step-by-step, hints and tips, a cow eye primer, and a glossary of terms. Extrinsic eye muscle matching Specify each featured eye muscle by selecting its corresponding label. Choose from 500 different sets of anatomy eye flashcards on quizlet. The Google Doc linked below is a paper version of the labeling that has a word bank at the bottom of the sheet. Quizlet: Ear Anatomy | Ear Anatomy Model. My anatomy students spend days learning the names of muscles. The Eye - Science Quiz: Our eyes are highly specialized organs that take in the light reflected off our surroundings and transform it into electrical impulses to send to the brain. muscle surrounding the eye. 102 (a) (2) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses eye protection that provides side protection when there is a hazard from flying objects. Tears have three main components; a watery component, an oily component and mucus. This part of the eye allows light into the eye. This quiz is incomplete! To play this quiz, please finish editing it. Contact Kelly. Label the …. Detachable side protectors (e. For us to see, there has to be light. Found within two cavities in the skull known as the orbits, the eyes are surrounded by several supporting structures including …. Start studying eye labeling. There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. virtreous humor. My anatomy students spend days learning the names of muscles. The lens along with the cornea refracts light so that it focuses on the retina. Extrinsic eye muscle matching Specify each featured eye muscle by selecting its corresponding label. Pop Quiz: Anatomy 4. Quiz: Label The Parts Of The Eye. a jelly-like material …. This resource contains 2 worksheets for students to (1) label the parts of the human eye and (2) label the parts of the human ear. 6 Skeletal Muscle Physiology. The anatomy of the eye is fascinating, and this quiz game will help you memorize the 12 parts of the eye with ease. You should be able to find the covering over the front of the eye (the cornea). About this Quiz. What term means that the lens can change shape so that the eye can focus on items either close at hand or far away?. Start studying Eye labeling. This resource includes: a step-by-step, hints and tips, a cow eye primer, and a glossary of terms. Played 35 times. This helps us to understand how each one is situated and related to the other. This is an online quiz called Eye Labeling - As Specialized Part of Nervous System - Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology, Chapter 12 From the quiz author Correctly identify presented term. Choose from 500 different sets of anatomy eye flashcards on quizlet. Sclera – also known as the white of your eye, this is the outer layer of the human eye. After reading each question below, click on the “pop-up” box after the question to activate it. Prime Numbers 241. Anatomy of the eye quizlet. The Eye - Science Quiz: Our eyes are highly specialized organs that take in the light reflected off our surroundings and transform it into electrical impulses to send to the brain. Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. The resting length of the muscle _______. The Virtual Eye Dissection is an excellent follow-up to learning structures on a model when you don’t have the ability to perform a real dissection in class. One of our favorite ways to get to grips with all of the parts of the eye is by utilizing labeled diagrams. Quiz: Label The Parts Of The Eye. This is an online quiz called Label the Eye. There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. Examine the outside of the eye. This eye represents a common mammalian eye. The optic nerve is mainly composed of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. It is located in the center of the retina. Learn eye label with free interactive flashcards. Montgomery, O. The internal components of an eye are: Lens: It is a transparent, biconvex, lens of an eye. a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening. Optic nerve. Extrinsic eye muscle matching Specify each featured eye muscle by selecting its corresponding label. eye and ear labeling DRAFT. Try our crash course in eye anatomy. Each part plays a vital role in our hearing. Select One Auditory Canal Cochlea Cochlear Nerve Eustachian Tube Incus Malleus Oval Window Pinna Round Window Semicircular Canals Stapes Tympanic Membrane Vestibular Nerve. Human Cranial Vault 1. Flex Your Muscles! A Close Look at the Biceps. This is an exercise for students to label a simple blank eye diagram with the following parts: iris, optic nerve, pupil, cornea, lens, retina. My anatomy students spend days learning the names of muscles. The sclera ranges in thickness from about 0. blind spot. Start studying eye labeling. muscle surrounding the eye. Prime Numbers 241. Human Bones 45. 1 label these parts of the lacrimal apparatus 2 3 Laboratory Exercise 22 Figure 22. The lens is attached to the ciliary body by ligaments. Quizlet: Ear Anatomy | Ear Anatomy Model. by mistygreene. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Answer keys included. Laboratory Exercise 21 The eye and Vision Figure21. This is an online quiz called Eye Labeling. Rate 5 stars …. Start studying 1 - Labeling Quiz (Planes, Cavities, Anatomical Regions, Directions). Locate the covering over the front of the eye, the cornea. The Ear - Science Quiz: Have you heard? Memorizing the parts of the ear isn't difficult! Not when you use this quiz game, that is! The human ear is made up of …. 7 months ago. Human Heart Anatomy 266. The nerve at the back of the eye that transports electric signals to the brain. This is an online quiz called Label the Eye. This resource includes: a step-by-step, hints and tips, a cow eye primer, and a glossary of terms. It is located in the center of the retina. This part of the eye allows light into the eye. These create a film which covers the white of the eye and the cornea. Students can also practice with this Eye Anatomy …. Label the structures indicated on this anterior-lateral view of the right eye. Optic nerve: The optic nerve is the largest sensory nerve of the eye. Kelly Oakes is science editor for BuzzFeed and is based in London. The lens is attached to the ciliary body by ligaments. Eye Coloring | …. How much did you get to understand about the human eye?. The Google Doc linked below is a paper version of the labeling that has a word bank at the bottom of the sheet. In your cow’s eye, the cornea may be cloudy. KNOW THE OPTIONS. Multiplication Table 336. Quizlet: Eye Anatomy. Hatching Animals 1. This part of the eye allows light into the eye. Inferior Rectus Medial Rectus Superior Oblique Inferior Oblique Lateral Rectus Superior Rectus Reset Zoom. Begins at the front of the eye attaching to the bony structure near the nose moves backward on the underside of the globe and attaches in the back of the eye. The lens is attached to the ciliary body by ligaments. Use clean, lukewarm tap water for at least 20 minutes. There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. 102 (a) (2) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses eye protection that provides side protection when there is a hazard from flying objects. Animals: African, Asian, Both or Neither 266. These create a film which covers the white of the eye and the cornea. On a diagram of the eye, we can see all of the relevant structures together on one image. Prime Numbers 241. The lens along …. You may be able to look through the cornea and see the iris, the colored part of the eye, and the pupil, the dark oval in the middle of the iris. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Quiz: Label The Parts Of The Eye People say that the eyes are the windows to a person’s soul. Detachable side protectors (e. Rate 5 stars …. muscle surrounding the eye. eye and ear labeling DRAFT. Top Quizzes with Similar Tags. This helps us to understand how each one is situated and related to the other. 102 (a) (3). Ear Labeling Image | Ear Coloring. Notes: 10: The Eye. Quiz: Label The Parts Of The Eye People say that the eyes are the windows to a person’s soul. Human Cranial Vault 1. This is an exercise for students to label a simple blank eye diagram with the following parts: iris, optic nerve, pupil, cornea, lens, retina. Choose from 500 different sets of eye label flashcards on Quizlet. Light enters through the cornea past the iris through the pupil refracted by the lens and onto the retina of the eye. The Ear - Science Quiz: Have you heard? Memorizing the parts of the ear isn’t difficult! Not when you use this quiz game, that is! The human ear is made up of three main parts, the outer, middle, and inner ear. Question 1. Learn eye label with free interactive flashcards. Which of the following occurs if the load attempted is equal to or greater than the force generated by a muscle? Isometric muscle contraction occurs. Identify the structure labeled #3. Each part plays a vital role in our hearing. Begins at the front of the eye attaching to the bony structure near the nose moves backward on the underside of the globe and attaches in the back of the eye. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. The middle ear contains three bones (the malleus. 6 Skeletal Muscle Physiology. Description. virtreous humor. Try our crash course in eye anatomy. We start at …. Ear Tutorial at Wisc-Online. Part 2: The Eye. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. When the cow was alive, the cornea was clear. Human eye anatomy quiz diagram labeling, eye anatomy model, interactive eye diagram quiz. This part protects the eye, especially the iris, pupil and lens. About this Quiz. 16 Questions Show answers. Start studying eye labeling. Select One Auditory Canal Cochlea Cochlear Nerve Eustachian Tube Incus Malleus Oval Window Pinna Round Window Semicircular Canals Stapes Tympanic Membrane Vestibular Nerve. The internal components of an eye are: Lens: It is a transparent, biconvex, lens of an eye. Human Bones 45. The outer ear gathers sound and allows it to pass through the ear canal to the eardrum. Each part plays a vital role in our hearing. Quizlet: Eye Anatomy. by mistygreene. My anatomy students spend days learning the names of muscles. Ear Labeling Image | Ear Coloring. There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. Click on the tags below to find other quizzes on the same subject. For us to see, there has to be light. Animals: African, Asian, Both or Neither 266. of light entering the eye. 16 Questions Show answers. Quiz: Label The Parts Of The Eye. In your cow’s eye, the cornea may be cloudy or blue in color. Wild Cats Slideshow 440. Contact Kelly. 1 label these parts of the lacrimal apparatus 2 3 Laboratory Exercise 22 Figure 22. Human eye anatomy quiz diagram labeling, eye anatomy model, interactive eye diagram quiz. Part 3: Labs over the Eye and Ear. Notes: 10: The Eye. Answer keys included. Start studying 1 - Labeling Quiz (Planes, Cavities, Anatomical Regions, Directions). The anatomy of the eye is fascinating, and this quiz game will help you memorize the 12 parts of the eye with ease. The Eye - Science Quiz: Our eyes are highly specialized organs that take in the light reflected off our surroundings and transform it into electrical impulses to send to the brain. Your Skills & Rank. Science Quiz / Human Eye Anatomy Random Science or Biology Quiz Can you locate the parts of the human eye? by smac17 Plays Quiz Updated Nov 13, 2017. Can You Get 11/11 On This Eye Anatomy Test? Will you make a spectacle of yourself? by Kelly Oakes. 35 Label The Structure Of The Eye Written By Ronald V Gardner Sunday, August 22, 2021 Add Comment Edit. You should be able to find the covering over the front of the eye (the cornea). This resource contains 2 worksheets for students to (1) label the parts of the human eye and (2) label the parts of the human ear. The middle ear contains three bones (the malleus. This is an online quiz called Eye Labeling - As Specialized Part of Nervous System - Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology, Chapter 12 From the quiz author Correctly identify presented term. Tears have three main components; a watery component, an oily component and mucus. Then click on the answer you believe is correct. Flex Your Muscles! A Close Look at the Biceps. Human Heart Anatomy 266. a jelly-like material that helps maintain the eye's shape and optical properties. This part of the eye allows light into the eye. Eye Coloring | Ear & Eye Coloring Label the Eye. Part 3: Labs over the Eye and Ear. This is an exercise for students to label a simple blank eye diagram …. Quizlet: Ear Anatomy | Ear Anatomy Model. Erase the Periodic Table 230. See full list on sciencetrends. Choose from 500 different sets of eye label flashcards on Quizlet. Play this game to review undefined. muscle surrounding the eye. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Students can also practice with this Eye Anatomy Study Set from Quizlet. 102 (a) (3). This is an online quiz called Eye Labeling. Answer keys included. Laboratory Exercise 21 The eye and Vision Figure21. Multiplication Table 336. Human Heart Anatomy 5. You may be able to look through the cornea and see the iris, the colored part of the eye, and the pupil, the dark oval in the middle of the iris. The optic nerve is mainly composed of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. Quickly memorize the terms phrases and much more. This is an exercise for students to label a simple blank eye diagram with the following parts: iris, optic nerve, pupil, cornea, lens, retina. The Google Doc linked below is a paper version of the labeling that has a word bank at the bottom of the sheet.




Sours: http://ferienvermietung-moewe.de/eye-labeling-quizlet.html
3 Ways to Recover From Muscle Fatigue with Dr. Matt Salzler - Tufts Medical Center

SKELETAL MUSCLE: WHOLE MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY


 

MOTOR UNITS

Primary Structures Protein

Image drawn by BYU-I student Nate Shoemaker Spring 2016

The motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle fibers are called alpha motor neurons. As the alpha motor neuron enters a muscle, it divides into several branches, each innervating a muscle fiber (note this in the image above). One alpha motor neuron along with all of the muscle fibers it innervates is a motor unit . The size of the motor unit correlates with the function of the muscle. In muscles involved with fine, coordinated control, the motor units are very small with 3-5 muscle fibers per motor neuron. Muscles that control eye movement and muscles in our hands have relatively small motor units. On the other hand in muscles involved with more powerful but less coordinated actions, like the muscles of the legs and back, the motor units are large with 1000s of muscle fibers per motor neuron.

MUSCLE TWITCH

Muscle Twitch Myogram

Title: File:1012 Muscle Twitch Myogram.jpg; Author: OpenStax College; Site:https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1012_Muscle_Twitch_Myogram.jpg; License: This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

When an action potential travels down the motor neuron, it will result in a contraction of all of the muscle fibers associated with that motor neuron. The contraction generated by a single action potential is called a muscle twitch. A single muscle twitch has three components. The latent period, or lag phase, the contraction phase, and the relaxation phase. The latent period is a short delay (1-2 msec) from the time when the action potential reaches the muscle until tension can be observed in the muscle. This is the time required for calcium to diffuse out of the SR, bind to troponin, the movement of tropomyosin off of the active sites, formation of cross bridges, and taking up any slack that may be in the muscle. The contraction phase is when the muscle is generating tension and is associated with cycling of the cross bridges, and the relaxation phase is the time for the muscle to return to its normal length. The length of the twitch varies between different muscle types and could be as short as 10 ms (milliseconds) or as long as 100 ms (more on this later).

If a muscle twitch is just a single quick contraction followed immediately by relaxation, how do we explain the smooth continued movement of our muscles when they contract and move bones through a large range of motion? The answer lies in the ordering of the firing of the motor units. If all of the motor units fired simultaneously the entire muscle would quickly contract and relax, producing a very jerky movement. Instead, when a muscle contracts, motor units fire asynchronously, that is, one contracts and then a fraction of a second later another contracts before the first has time to relax and then another fires and so on. So, instead of a quick, jerky movement the whole muscle contraction is very smooth and controlled. Even when a muscle is at rest, there is random firing of motor units. This random firing is responsible for what is known as muscle tone. So, a muscle is never "completely" relaxed, even when asleep. However, if the neuron to a muscle is cut, there will be no "muscle tone" and this is called flaccid paralysis. There are several benefits of muscle tone: First it takes up the "slack" in the muscle so that when it is asked to contract, it can immediately begin to generate tension and move the limb. If you have ever towed a car you know what happens if you don't take the slack out of the tow rope before starting to pull. The second thing muscle tone does is deter muscle atrophy.

 

TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION

Muscle contractions are described based on two variables: force (tension) and length (shortening). When the tension in a muscle increases without a corresponding change in length, the contraction is called an isometric contraction (iso = same, metric=length). Isometric contractions are important in maintaining posture or stabilizing a joint. On the other hand, if the muscle length changes while muscle tension remains relatively constant, then the contraction is called an isotonic contraction (tonic = tension). Furthermore, isotonic contractions can be classified based on how the length changes. If the muscle generates tension and the entire muscle shortens than it is a concentriccontraction. An example would be curling a weight from your waist to your shoulder; the bicep muscle used for this motion would undergo a concentric contraction. In contrast, when lowering the weight from the shoulder to the waist the bicep would also be generating force but the muscle would be lengthening, this is an eccentric contraction. Eccentric contractions work to decelerate the movement at the joint. Additionally, eccentric contractions can generate more force than concentric contractions. Think about the large box you take down form the top shelf of your closet. You can lower it under total control using eccentric contractions but when you try to return it to the shelf using concentric contractions you cannot generate enough force to lift it back up. Strength training, involving both concentric and eccentric contractions, appears to increase muscle strength more than just concentric contractions alone. However, eccentric contractions cause more damage (tearing) to the muscle resulting in greater muscle soreness. If you have ever run downhill in a long race and then experienced the soreness in your quadriceps muscles the next day, you know what we are talking about.

Muscle size is determined by the number and size of the myofibrils, which in turn is determined by the amount of myofilament proteins. Thus, resistance training will induce a cascade of events that result in the production of more proteins. Often this is initiated by small, micro-tears in and around the the muscle fibers. If the tearing occurs at the myofibril level the muscle will respond by increasing the amount of proteins, thus strengthening and enlarging the muscle, a phenomenon called hypertrophy. This tearing is thought to account for the muscle soreness we experience after a workout. As mentioned above, the repair of these small tears results in enlargement of the muscle fibers but it also results in an increase in the amount of connective tissue in the muscle. When a person "bulks up" from weight training, a significant percent of the increase in size of the muscle is due to increases in the amount of connective tissue. It should be pointed out that endurance training does not result in a significant increase in muscle size but increases its ability to produce ATP aerobically.

 

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE FORCE OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION

Obviously our muscles are capable of generating differing levels of force during whole muscle contraction. Some actions require much more force generation than others; think of picking up a pencil compared to picking up a bucket of water. The question becomes, how can different levels of force be generated?

Multiple-motor unit summation or recruitment: It was mentioned earlier that all of the motor units in a muscle usually don't fire at the same time. One way to increase the amount of force generated is to increase the number of motor units that are firing at a given time. We say that more motor units are being recruited. The greater the load we are trying to move the more motor units that are activated. However, even when generating the maximum force possible, we are only able to use about 1/3 of our total motor units at one time. Normally they will fire asynchronously in an effort to generate maximum force and prevent the muscles from becoming fatigued. As fibers begin to fatigue they are replaced by others in order to maintain the force. There are times, however, when under extreme circumstances we are able to recruit even more motor units. You have heard stories of mothers lifting cars off of their children, this may not be totally fiction. Watch the following clip to see how amazing the human body can be. Muscle recruitment. (Video Transcription Available)

Wave Summation and Tetanus

Title: 1013_Summation_Tetanus.jpg; Author: OpenStax; Site: http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]:67/Anatomy-&-Physiology; License: This work is licensed by Rice University under a Creative Commons Attribution License License ( 3.0).

Wave summation: Recall that a muscle twitch can last up to 100 ms and that an action potential lasts only 1-2 ms. Also, with the muscle twitch, there is not refractory period so it can be re-stimulated at any time. If you were to stimulate a single motor unit with progressively higher frequencies of action potentials you would observe a gradual increase in the force generated by that muscle. This phenomenon is called wave summation. Eventually the frequency of action potentials would be so high that there would be no time for the muscle to relax between the successive stimuli and it would remain totally contracted, a condition called tetanus. Essentially, with the high frequency of action potentials there isn't time to remove calcium from the cytosol. Maximal force, then, is generated with maximum recruitment and an action potential frequency sufficient to result in tetanus.

Muscle Length and Tension

Title: 1011_Muscle_Length_and_Tension.jpg; Author: OpenStax; Site: http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]:67/Anatomy-&-Physiology; License: This work is licensed by Rice University under a Creative Commons Attribution License License ( 3.0).

Initial Sarcomere Length: It has been demonstrated experimentally that the starting length of the sarcomere influences the amount of force the muscle can generate. This observation has to do with the overlap of the thick and thin filaments. If the starting sarcomere length is very short, the thick filaments will already be pushing up against the Z-disc and there is no possibility for further sarcomere shortening, and the muscle will be unable to generate as much force. On the other hand, if the muscle is stretched to the point where myosin heads can no longer contact the actin, then again, less force will be generated. Maximum force is generated when the muscle is stretched to the point that allows every myosin head to contact the actin and the sarcomere has the maximum distance to shorten. In other words, the thick filaments are at the very ends of the thin filaments. These data were generated experimentally using frog muscles that were dissected out and stretched between two rods. Intact muscles in our bodies are not normally stretched very far beyond their optimal length due to the arrangement of muscle attachments and joints.

However, you can do a little experiment that will help you see how force is lost when a muscle is in a very short or a very stretched position. This experiment will use the muscles that help you pinch the pad of your thumb to the pads of your fingers. These muscles are near maximal stretch when you extend your arm and also extend your wrist. As your wrist is cocked back into maximal extension, try to pinch your thumb to your fingers. See how weak it feels? Now, gradually flex your wrist back to a straight or neutral position. You should feel your pinch get stronger. Now, flex your elbow and your wrist. With your wrist in maximal flexion, the muscles you use to pinch with are near their most shortened position. Try pinching again. It should feel weak. But, again, as you extend your wrist back to neutral you should feel your pinch get stronger.

 

ENERGY SOURCE FOR MUSCLE CONTRACTION

The ultimate source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. Recall that each cycle of a myosin head requires an ATP molecule. Multiply that by all of the myosin heads in a muscle and the number of cycles each head completes each twitch and you can start to see how much ATP is needed for muscle function. It is estimated that we burn approximately our entire body weight in ATP each day so it becomes apparent that we need to constantly replenish this important energy source. For muscle contraction, there are four ways that our muscles get the ATP required for contraction.

  1. Cytosolic ATP: This ATP represents the "floating" pool of ATP, or that which is present and available in the cytoplasm. This ATP requires no oxygen (anaerobic) to make it (because it is already there) and is immediately available but it is short lived. It provides enough energy for a few seconds of maximal activity in the muscle-not the best source for long term contraction. Nevertheless, for the muscles of the eyes that are constantly contracting quickly but for short periods of time, this is a great source.
  2. Creatine Phosphate: Once the cytosolic stores of ATP are depleted, the cell calls upon another rapid energy source, Creatine Phosphate. Creatine phosphate is a high energy compound that can rapidly transfer its phosphate to a molecule of ADP to quickly replenish ATP without the use of oxygen. This transfer requires the enzyme creatine kinase, an enzyme that is located on the M-line of the sarcomere. Creatine phosphate can replenish the ATP pool several times, enough to extend muscle contraction up to about 10 seconds. Creatine Phosphate is the most widely used supplement by weight lifters. Although some benefits have been demonstrated, most are very small and limited to highly selective activities.
  3. Glycolysis: Glycolysis, as the name implies, is the breakdown of glucose. The primary source of glucose for this process is from glycogen that is stored in the muscle. Glycolysis can function in the absence of oxygen and as such, is the major source of ATP production during anaerobic activity. This series of chemical reactions will be a major focus in the next unit. Although glycolysis is very quick and can supply energy for intensive muscular activity, it can only be sustained for about a minute before the muscles begin to fatigue.
  4. Aerobic or Oxidative Respiration: The mechanisms listed above can supply ATP for maybe a little over a minute before fatigue sets in. Obviously, we engage in muscle activity that lasts much longer than a minute (things like walking or jogging or riding a bicycle). These activities require a constant supply of ATP. When continuous supplies of ATP are required, the cells employ metabolic mechanisms housed in the mitochondria that utilize oxygen. We normally refer to these processes as aerobic metabolism or oxidative metabolism. Using these aerobic processes, the mitochondria can supply sufficient ATP to power the muscle cells for hours. The down side of aerobic metabolism is that it is slower than anaerobic mechanisms and is not fast enough for intense activity. However, for moderate levels of activity, it works great. Although glucose can also be utilized in aerobic metabolism, the nutrient of choice is fatty acids. As described below, slow-twitch and fast-twitch oxidative fibers are capable of utilizing aerobic metabolism

FATIGUE

When we think of skeletal muscles getting tired, we often use the word fatigue, however, the physiological causes of fatigue vary considerably. At the simplest level, fatigue is used to describe a condition in which the muscle is no longer able to contract optimally. To make discussion easier, we will divide fatigue into two broad categories: Central fatigue and peripheral fatigue. Central fatigue describes the uncomfortable feelings that come from being tired, it is often called "psychological fatigue." It has been suggested that central fatigue arises from factors released by the muscle during exercise that signal the brain to "feel" tired. Psychological fatigue precedes peripheral fatigue and occurs well before the muscle fiber can no longer contract. One of the outcomes of training is to learn how to overcome psychological fatigue. As we train we learn that those feelings are not so bad and that we can continue to perform even when it feels uncomfortable. For this reason, elite athletes hire trainers that push them and force them to move past the psychological fatigue.

Peripheral fatigue can occur anywhere between the neuromuscular junction and the contractile elements of the muscle. It can be divided into two subcategories, low frequency (marathon running) and high frequency (circuit training) fatigue. High frequency fatigue results from impaired membrane excitability as a result of imbalances of ions. Potential causes are inadequate functioning of the Na+/K+ pump, subsequent inactivation of Na+ channels and impairment of Ca2+ channels. Muscles can recover quickly, usually within 30 minutes or less, following high frequency fatigue. Low frequency fatigue is correlated with impaired Ca2+ release, probably due to excitation coupling contraction problems. It is much more difficult to recover from low frequency fatigue, taking from 24 hours to 72 hours.

In addition, there are many other potential fatigue contributors, these include: accumulation of inorganic phosphates, hydrogen ion accumulation and subsequent pH change, glycogen depletion, and imbalances in K+. Please note that factors that are not on the list are ATP and lactic acid, both of which do not contribute to fatigue. The reality is we still don't know exactly what causes fatigue and much research is currently devoted to this topic.

SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBER TYPES

Classically, skeletal muscle fibers can be categorized according to their speed of contraction and their resistance to fatigue. These classifications are in the process of being revised, but the basic types include:

  1. Slow twitch oxidative (type I) muscle fibers,
  2. Fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic (Type IIA) muscle fibers, and
  3. Fast-twitch glycolytic (Type IIX) fibers.

Fast-twitch (type II) fibers develop tension two to three times faster than slow-twitch (type I) fibers. How fast a fiber can contract is related to how long it takes for completion of the cross-bridge cycle. This variability is due to different varieties of myosin molecules and how quickly they can hydrolyze ATP. Recall that it is the myosin head that splits ATP. Fast-twitch fibers have a more rapid ATPase (splitting of ATP into ADP + Pi) ability. Fast-twitch fibers also pump Ca2+ ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum very quickly, so these cells have much faster twitches than the slower variety. Thus, fast-twitch fibers can complete multiple contractions much more rapidly than slow-twitch fibers. For a complete list of how muscle fibers differ in their ability to resist fatigue see the table below:

Slow Twitch Oxidative (Type I)Fast-twitch Oxidative (Type IIA)Fast-Twitch Glycolytic (Type IIX)
Myosin ATPase activityslowfastfast
Size (diameter)smallmediumlarge
Duration of contractionlongshortshort
SERCA pump activityslowfastfast
Fatigueresistantresistanteasily fatigued
Energy utilizationaerobic/oxidativebothanerobic/glycolytic
capillary densityhighmediumlow
mitochondriahigh numbersmedium numberslow numbers
Colorred (contain myoglobin)red (contain myoglobin)white (no myoglobin)

In human skeletal muscles, the ratio of the various fiber types differs from muscle to muscle. For example the gastrocnemius muscle of the calf contains about half slow and half fast type fibers, while the deeper calf muscle, the soleus, is predominantly slow twitch. On the other hand the eye muscles are predominantly fast twitch. As a result, the gastrocnemius muscle is used in sprinting while the soleus muscle is important for standing. In addition, women seem to have a higher ratio of slow twitch to fast twitch compared to men. The "preferred" fiber type for sprinting athletes is the fast-twitch glycolytic, which is very fast, however, most humans have a very low percentage of these fibers, < 1%. Muscle biopsies of one world class sprinter revealed 72% fast twitch fibers and amazingly 20% were type IIX. The Holy Grail of muscle research is to determine how to change skeletal muscle fibers from one type to another. It appears that muscle fiber types are determined embryologically by the type of neuron that innervates the muscle fiber. The default muscle appears to be slow, type I fibers. If a muscle is innervated by a small neuron that muscle fiber will remain slow, whereas large mylenated fibers induce the fast isoforms. In addition, the frequency of firing rates of the neuron also alters the muscle fiber type. Research suggests that humans have subtypes of fibers, making up about <5% of the muscle, that are dually innervated and allow for switching between slow and fast to occur. Generally, it would appear that genetics determine the type of innervation that occurs and subsequent muscle fiber types and that training may be able to slightly alter the ratios due to the dually innervated muscles. However, since <5% have dual innervation, genetics is going to play a much greater role in your fiber types than your training.

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