Grandiose narcissist traits

Grandiose narcissist traits DEFAULT

What Is Grandiose Narcissism?

What Is Grandiose Narcissism?

Rather than being its own mental health diagnosis, grandiose narcissism is a term used to describe a person with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) who shows a certain set of symptoms that differ from the norm. Where other narcissists may have an underlying sense of insecurity or fragility, a person with grandiose narcissism will believe, without doubt, that they are special, unique, and superior.

Here are symptoms of grandiose narcissism:1

  • A need for admiration
  • A lack of empathy
  • An exaggerated sense of importance
  • Persistent fantasies of increased success, power, happiness, love, intelligence, or physical appearance
  • A belief that they are so special that they should only associate with other special people
  • A belief that they should receive special attention, treatment, and gifts
  • A tendency to take advantage of other people or situations to fulfill their goals
  • Lacking care, compassion, and empathy for others
  • Being envious of others and thinking that others are envious of them
  • Appearing arrogant, conceited, or self-absorbed

A person only needs five of these qualities to receive a diagnosis of NPD, meaning that someone with grandiose narcissism may not necessarily be envious of others. Instead, they may only imagine that people want to be as wonderful as they are.

Grandiose narcissists are much like other people with NPD, but some symptoms will be exaggerated. Overall, those with grandiose narcissism are more assertive and extroverted than their counterparts with standard NPD.

Grandiose narcissists will also display these symptoms:2

  • Very high confidence and self-esteem
  • Superiority and entitlement
  • Impulsivity
  • Anger, hostility, and verbal or physical aggression when confronted
  • Exploitation of others

Because grandiose narcissists believe so strongly in their abilities and intelligence, they will display a strong distrust of experts. According to the grandiose narcissist, the expert could never know as much as they do, so anyone that disagrees with the narcissist will always be wrong.2

6 Signs of a Grandiose Narcissist

Like people with other personality disorders, the grandiose narcissist can be challenging to identify at first. They could appear to be a high functioning member of society, a business leader, and very successful, but over time, they tend more clearly toward grandiosity.

Here are six signs of grandiose narcissism:1,2

  1. A flashy and showy presentation with expensive cars, clothes, and homes
  2. Being boastful and frequently bragging about their accomplishments
  3. The sense that they are inauthentic with compliments
  4. Being quick to anger if anyone contradicts or disagrees with them
  5. Asking for special treatment or consideration
  6. Sticking to their views or opinions, even when there is plenty of evidence against them

Perhaps, one the the most significant signs of grandiose narcissism is the lack of reciprocity. People with this condition will ask for time, patience, effort, sacrifice, and money from others while never being interested in returning the favors. Relationships with these people are always one-sided and out of balance.

A grandiose narcissist could be a hugely successful person, a leader, a company CEO, or a public figure with many adoring fans. These people are driven to accomplish great things in order to demonstrate their superiority. From the outside, the narcissist’s qualities will seem appealing or attractive, but this view may only be temporary or possible from afar.

Because grandiose narcissists are only concerned with fulfilling their own needs and interests, their decisions may not benefit the entire group or organization. The selfishness of grandiose narcissism will ensure that all people will not reap the same rewards.2

A narcissist who is the president of a company won’t care if employees or stockholders are dissatisfied in their position or performance. As long as they are getting paid and living the lifestyle they want, they have little interest in others. Furthermore, they will not care enough about other people’s opinions to even take the situation seriously.

Grandiose Narcissism vs. Vulnerable Narcissism

Narcissism is a mental health diagnosis with a lot of variation. On one end of the spectrum is the grandiose narcissist, a person with extremely high confidence, self-esteem, and a sense of superiority. On the other end of the spectrum is vulnerable narcissism; these are people whose confidence is fragile and tenuous.

Sometimes called a hypersensitive narcissist or covert narcissist, the vulnerable narcissist could present much differently than the grandiose narcissist. Rather than driving an expensive car, wearing fancy clothes, and living in a lavish house while having a boastful and brash personality, the vulnerable narcissist could be introverted and plagued by anxiety, shame, and depressive symptoms.3,4

With narcissism, there is not one type that is “better” as they are each problematic versions of the same condition. With grandiose narcissism, the person will likely be happier as they live in blissful ignorance of how other people see them and how their actions affect others. They will only become angry and frustrated when people question them or cannot live up to their expectations. Vulnerable narcissists could feel worried and sad. They will become defensive and angry towards others as a way of masking their vulnerabilities.4

5 Ways to Deal With a Grandiose Narcissist

Living, working, or engaging with a grandiose narcissist is difficult. Not only will they not care about your point of view if it doesn’t align with theirs, they won’t believe you if you say something critical. If they respond, it will likely be with intense anger, discouraging you to mention anything in the future. Despite challenges, there are steps to keep your friends and loved ones safe and secure when dealing with a narcissist.

Here are five ways to deal with a grandiose narcissist:

1. Identify the Narcissist

As illustrated, a grandiose narcissist is quite different from a vulnerable narcissist, so treating and responding to them in the same way will not be effective. Take some time to identify the key characteristics of the person you interact with and notice how they present themselves, how they respond to adversity, and how they engage with others.

The grandiose narcissist will usually seem happy, confident, loud, and the center of attention. A vulnerable narcissist could slink away from social situations and appear more quiet or introverted.

2. Set Reasonable Expectations

If you’re setting out to deal with a grandiose narcissist, you must be reasonable and realistic. Like other personality disorders, narcissism is a character trait that tends to be static and stable over time. It does not shift and fluctuate like depression or anxiety do.

In many situations, the narcissist will not be interested in changing or doing things differently, because according to them, their life is going perfectly. Putting too much pressure on the situation can cause stress and frustration in the other person, so set the expectation low.

3. Offer Information & Assistance

Rather than trying to be covert or sneaky, let the other person know what you notice about their condition and how their life could be affected if they continue on this path. Let them know that you are interested and invested in helping them deal with grandiose narcissism, but it is up to them to create the change.

4. Set & Enforce Boundaries

People with grandiose narcissism are notoriously manipulative and selfish. Given the opportunity, they could put friends, family, and employees in dangerous or distressing situations without pausing to consider the risks. Let them know that you won’t tolerate this type of behavior and describe the consequences of any manipulation. Most importantly, you must follow through on the planned repercussions. Otherwise, the manipulation will continue.

5. Be Prepared to Leave

Sometimes the only way to appropriately deal with a grandiose narcissist is to leave them, especially if you’re in a romantic relationship. Whether they are a family member, a friend, a coworker, a boss, or a romantic partner, you have to know when being together is causing too much pain, stress, and hardship in your life. They may not be willing or able to change, but you can change your level of contact with them.

Can Grandiose Narcissism Be Treated?

Any mental health condition can be treated, but the prognosis for grandiose narcissism is poor. First of all, grandiose narcissists are rarely willing to attend treatment independently because they view their life as being great with any problems coming from others. Second, if they do present to treatment, the prospect of creating meaningful change is limited, since their confidence and sense of superiority are high.

Despite persistent debate, there is no preferred form of therapy used to treat narcissistic personality disorder. No one approach produces consistently positive outcomes, so providers may rely on psychodynamic therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or other therapy styles.5 Similarly, there are no medication options specifically utilized for NPD. However, prescribers may offer medications to help manage some of the effects triggered by narcissism.5


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The DSM-5 defines narcissisticpersonality disorder as a pervasive pattern of grandiosity in fantasy or behavior, a need for admiration, and a lack of empathy, beginning in early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following behavioral patterns:

  1. Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements).
  2. Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love.
  3. Believes that he or she is “special” and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions).
  4. Requires excessive admiration.
  5. Has a sense of entitlement (i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations).
  6. Is interpersonally exploitative (i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends).
  7. Lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others.
  8. Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her.
  9. Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes.

Clinical narcissists display co-occurring or oscillating states of grandiosity and hypersensitivity. Accordingly, inventories used to determine pathological narcissism, like the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, encompass hypersensitivity/vulnerability measures alongside measures of grandiosity. In the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, grandiosity is measured by the patient’s responses on a 5-point scale to questions like “I often fantasize about being recognized for my accomplishments,” “I often fantasize about being rewarded for my efforts,” and “I want to amount to something in the eyes of the world,” whereas hypersensitivity/vulnerability is assessed by the patient’s responses on a five-point scale to questions like “It’s hard for me to feel good about myself unless I know other people like me,” “It’s hard to show others the weaknesses I feel inside,” and “I like to have friends who rely on me because it makes me feel important.” Because of the co-occurrence or oscillation of grandiosity and hypersensitivity in clinical narcissism, there are no officially recognized subtypes of clinical narcissism.

Clinical narcissism is rare. It only affects about one percent of the population, and this number appears to stay fairly constant. When a flashy headline exclaims that narcissism is on the rise, the term “narcissism” is used to refer to the more prevalent subclinical, or everyday variant of narcissism seen in the general population. Upward of ten percent of people in their twenties are believed to suffer from subclinical narcissism, severe enough to compromise their interpersonal relationships.

There are two subtypes of subclinical narcissism: grandiose narcissism, which is continuous with a narcissistic personality disorder, and vulnerable (or hypersensitive/covert) narcissism. Both subtypes have self-centeredness as a core feature, but the self-absorption is expressed differently in the two cases.

Grandiose narcissism is characterized by extraversion, low neuroticism and overt expressions of feelings of superiority and entitlement. Owing to their grandiosity, they believe that they are somehow above the rest of us, and that they, therefore, are entitled to special treatment. In their view, our job is to cater to their needs. They are true egomaniacs.

Vulnerable narcissism reflects introversive self-absorbedness, high neuroticism, hypersensitivity even to gentle criticism, and a constant need for reassurance. As Dr. Craig Malkin points out in Rethinking Narcissism, vulnerable narcissists “are just as convinced that they’re better than others as any other narcissist, but they fear criticism so viscerally that they shy away from, and even seem panicked by, people and attention” (p. 34).

Owing to the apparent lack of a common core between the subtypes of narcissism, most personality researchers regard grandiose and vulnerable narcissism as independent traits. However, the fact that the two traits are co-present or oscillate in narcissistic personality disorder, the clinical type, suggests that they do in fact have a common basis.

By controlling for differences in extraversion, psychologist Emanuel Jauk and his collaborators were able to show that grandiose and vulnerable narcissists share a common core of narcissistic traits, including contempt-proneness. But the distinct narcissistic styles of the two subtypes are not due merely to differential scores on extraversion. Because of their high neuroticism and hypersensitivity to criticism, vulnerable narcissists prone to overreact emotionally, always on the verge of bursting open with hatred.

Vulnerable narcissism is associated with dissociation of the self-image into an explicit, positive self-image and an implicit, negative self-image. The positive self-image is associated with excessive pride, whereas the negative self-image is associated with shame and humiliation. When receiving only positive feedback, the narcissist is able to keep the negative shame-filled self-image hidden below the level of conscious awareness. But when they experience external feedback as criticism, they are forced to confront their negative self-image and feel deeply ashamed.

Whereas the vulnerable narcissist is struggling with internally conflicting self-images, no hidden negative self-representation is threatening to make a dent in the grandiose narcissist’s positive self-image. Negative feedback, therefore, doesn’t have as profound an impact on the grandiose narcissist. But the deep shame this brings upon the vulnerable narcissist turns her into a combustible compound destined to explode in a frightening outburst of anger or all-consuming fit of hatred. This hostile reaction to insinuations of imperfection is also known as “narcissistic rage.”


Jauk E, Weigle E, Lehmann K, Benedek M, Neubauer A.C. (2017). “The Relationship between Grandiose and Vulnerable (Hypersensitive) Narcissism,” Front Psychol. 8:1600.

Malkin, C. (2015). Rethinking Narcissism: The Secret to Recognizing and Coping with Narcissists. New York: Harper Perennial.

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How to Identify a Malignant Narcissist

Narcissism is a personality trait that has been recognized throughout history, yet narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and narcissistic personality traits have been in the public eye more often in recent years. As awareness increases, people are wondering if they are dealing with a narcissist rather than someone who is simply selfish, thoughtless, or overly power-seeking in a more general way.

There are different "variants" of narcissism, including malignant narcissism, which many consider the most severe type. Beyond merely wanting to focus primarily on themselves and be held in overly high regard by virtually everyone in their lives, malignant narcissists tend to have a darker side to their self-absorption. 

That’s why it helps to know when you have one in your life and what to expect from interactions with them. This knowledge, recognition, and understanding can provide you with some clues as to how to deal with them in the safest way possible.

How to Identify a Malignant Narcissist

What Is Malignant Narcissism?

While there is only one official diagnosis for narcissists, there are different types of narcissists, and narcissism comes in varying degrees of severity, including grandiose narcissists, who require excessive praise and attention, and vulnerable narcissists, who tend to have a lot of anxiety and need a lot of supportive attention.

Among the variants of narcissism, malignant narcissists are by far the most damaging. This subset contains the general traits of NPD, including regular egocentricity, but also some antisocial traits and even a sadistic streak as well as a poor sense of self and lack of empathy. There is often some paranoia involved with malignant narcissism as well. 

Some experts see little difference between malignant narcissists and psychopaths in that both have antisocial behavior and low empathy.

How to Recognize Someone With Covert Narcissism

Malignant narcissists can be highly manipulative, and they don't care who they hurt as long as they get their own way.

Other symptoms of malignant narcissists include:

  • They see the world in black-and-white terms, including seeing others as either friend or foe.
  • They seek to win at all costs and generally leave a great amount of pain, frustration, and even heartache in their wake.
  • They generally don’t care about the pain they cause others—or may even enjoy it and experience it as empowering.
  • They will do what it takes to prevent themselves from loss, inconvenience, or failing to get what they want in any situation.

Signs and Symptoms

While not every person who displays narcissistic traits is a classic “narcissist” in the sense that they have the diagnosable condition of NPD, even those who fail to meet the criteria for diagnosis can create a lot of harm with the traits they do possess.

Signs and symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder and the severity of symptoms vary and include the following that are often characteristic in malignant narcissists:

  • Preoccupied with fantasies about beauty, brilliance, success, and power
  • Unable to handle criticism
  • Tendency to lash out if they feel slighted
  • Likely to take advantage of others to get what they want
  • Overly concerned about their appearance
  • Expectation of being treated as superior
  • Lack of empathy for others
  • Inflated sense of self and inability to self-regulate
  • Having no remorse for hurting others and no interest in apologizing unless it benefits them
  • Having an attitude of deserving the best of everything
  • Tendency to monopolize conversations and/or mistreat those who they perceive as inferior
  • Hidden insecurity and weak sense of self
  • Tendency to blame others for their own bad behavior

How to Spot a Narcissistic Sociopath


While malignant narcissism isn’t recognized as an official diagnosis in the DSM-5, which is the standard for diagnosis of psychiatric conditions, mental health experts often use this term to describe a combination of the following:

  • Antisocial personality disorder (APD)
  • Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD)
  • Aggression and sadism (towards self, others, or both)
  • Paranoia

Antisocial Personality Disorder

According to the DSM-5, a person with antisocial personality disorder must be at least 18 years old and have a pattern of disregard for the rights of others including at least three of the following:

  • Disregard for the safety of the self and others
  • Failure to obey laws or social norms
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Irritability and aggression
  • Lack of remorse for actions
  • Lying or manipulating others for profit or amusement
  • Pattern of irresponsibility

What Is Antisocial Personality Disorder?

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

The following is an abbreviated summary of the diagnostic criteria for NPD according to the DSM-5:

  • A grandiose sense of self-importance
  • Persistent fantasies about unlimited success and power
  • A belief that they are “special” and unique and can only be understood by or should associate with similar high-status people and organizations
  • Constant need for attention, admiration, and praise
  • A sense of entitlement and expectation of special treatment
  • A tendency to use others for their own needs or wants
  • A lack of empathy, or unwillingness/inability to recognize and honor the needs and feelings of others
  • Proneness to envy or having a belief that they are envied by others
  • A sense of arrogance shown in behaviors and/or attitudes

Narcissism vs. NPD

It's important to note that not all narcissistic traits necessarily indicate a personality disorder, which according to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), involves at least two of the following four areas:

  • Affective (ways of responding emotionally)
  • Cognitive (ways of thinking about oneself and others)
  • Impulse-control-based (ways of controlling one's behavior)
  • Interpersonal (ways of relating to others)

Even if your loved one isn't officially diagnosed with NPD, narcissistic behaviors can still be difficult to deal with and have a negative impact on your relationship.

What Are Personality Disorders?


Treating malignant narcissism can be challenging, especially since narcissists themselves rarely seek treatment or diagnosis.


If you think someone you care about has a NPD, there are certain therapies that may be helpful. Although there is relatively limited data on empirically supported treatments for NPD, certain therapy approaches are often applied:

Narcissists generally resist therapy (which can include diagnosis) because they don't tend to see themselves as having a problem. The distress they cause is often felt by those around them.


The following medications may also be prescribed to improve symptoms like anger, irritability, and paranoia that may accompany NPD, as well as treat any cooccurring psychiatric disorders:

How to Deal With a Narcissist

How does one deal with NPD in a loved one (or in someone they must deal with, like a boss or co-worker)? Fortunately, they are somewhat predictable, so there are a few guidelines that can help: 

  • Accept that they will be difficult to deal with. If possible, put some distance between yourself and them. This may be challenging as those with narcissistic traits tend to have poor boundaries and resent when you try to set them, but it is healthier for you.
  • Do not try to change them and don't expect them to change,or you will be disappointed.
  • Know that if you challenge them directly, they will likely retaliate in any way they can. This may include bringing others into the situation and attempting to turn them against you. This doesn't mean that you agree with whatever the narcissist asks of you, but you may want to find less confrontational ways to communicate your boundaries or disagreements.
  • If you do need to confront the person, try not to do so in front of a large audience or they will want to save face and will feel more threatened, sparking more retaliation.
  • Surround yourself with supportive peopleas much as possible to absorb some of the negativity you may experience with this person.

How to Cope With a Personality Disorder

A Word From Verywell

Life with a malignant narcissist will never be easy, so it's simplest if you can put distance between yourself and this person. However, if this person is a family member or co-worker, this can be more difficult. In this case, it helps to know who you are dealing with and how to handle communication in as healthy a way as possible.

If you think your loved one might have malignant narcissism, talk to your doctor. A trained mental health professional can help you learn coping skills and how to set boundaries and practice self-care strategies. Group therapy and support groups may also be helpful resources.

Thanks for your feedback!

Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.; 2013.

  2. American Psychiatric Association. What are personality disorders? November 2018.

  3. Goldner-vukov M, Moore LJ. Malignant narcissism: From fairy tales to harsh reality. Psychiatr Danub. 2010;22(3):392-405. 

Additional Reading
  • American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.; 2013.

Identifying \u0026 Managing The Overt Grandiose Narcissist

Vulnerable and Grandiose Narcissism Are Differentially Associated With Ability and Trait Emotional Intelligence


Nowadays, an increasing tendency to describe narcissism as a non–clinical personality trait is being observed among psychologists (e.g., Paulhus and Williams, 2002). Empirical data show that narcissism is connected to a variety of psychological variables such as aggression (e.g., Krizan and Johar, 2015), self–esteem and well–being (e.g., Sedikides et al., 2004; Dufner et al., 2012). Several studies explored also the relationship between narcissism and constructs related to emotional functioning, such as empathy and emotional intelligence (EI). However, these studies provide rather mixed results. Whereas some researchers found narcissism to be associated with low empathy (Delič et al., 2011), others reported no relation, or a positive correlation between narcissism and empathy (e.g., Jonason and Kroll, 2015). Likewise, in some cases narcissism was positively associated with EI (Petrides et al., 2011; Veselka et al., 2012; Nagler et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015), while in other studies this relationship was close to zero or even negative (Vonk et al., 2013; Austin et al., 2014; Czarna et al., 2016; Jauk et al., 2016). The aim of the present study was a deeper understanding of the association between narcissism and EI. A careful analysis of prior work presented below reveals that the ambiguous findings might be related to the fact that both narcissism and EI are complex constructs and their relationship depends on the specific aspect being analyzed (e.g., type of narcissism) or the conceptualization and assessment method (e.g., self-report vs. performance EI).

Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism

Some researchers suggest that narcissism might not be a unitary construct. The distinction between vulnerable and grandiose narcissism was made by Wink (1991). The two forms of narcissism share several characteristics such self-centeredness, exaggerated sense of self-importance and entitlement, disagreeableness, and a tendency to interact with others in an antagonistic manner (Dickinson and Pincus, 2003; Miller et al., 2011). Regardless of the narcissistic common core, each dimension has its own exclusive characteristic. Individuals with high vulnerable narcissism are described as being defensive, avoidant, insecure, hypersensitive and vigilant for criticism (Wink, 1991; Miller et al., 2011). At the same time they need people’s recognition (e.g., admiration) to bolster their self–worth. Feeling underestimated may result in withdrawal and passive attitude in interpersonal relations (Pincus et al., 2009; Miller et al., 2011). Vulnerable narcissism is also associated with lower levels of self esteem, extraversion and agreeableness, higher neuroticism (Miller et al., 2011, 2018; Maciantowicz and Zajenkowski, 2018), a negative view of the past and fatalistic attitude (Zajenkowski et al., 2016).

Grandiose narcissism is characterized by high self–esteem, interpersonal dominance and tendency to overestimate one’s capabilities (Wink, 1991; Pincus et al., 2009; Miller et al., 2011). Individuals with high grandiose narcissism tend to endorse positive illusions about themselves, simultaneously repressing information inconsistent with an inflated self-image (Campbell and Foster, 2007). They fantasize about superiority, perfection, omnipotence. Grandiosity can also be manifested through exploitativeness and aggressive behaviors (Pincus et al., 2009). Grandiose narcissism negatively correlates with neuroticism and agreeableness, and positively with extraversion (Miller et al., 2011). Several studies revealed a tendency to overestimate one’s own cognitive ability among people scoring high on grandiose narcissism (Gabriel et al., 1994; Paulhus and Williams, 2002; Zajenkowski and Czarna, 2015).

Ability and Trait Emotional Intelligence and Their Association With Narcissism

Emotional intelligence was defined by Salovey and Mayer (1990, p.189) as the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feeling and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions. In their model four branches have been distinguished: Perception of Emotions (the ability to identify one’s emotions accurately, as well as to recognize emotions of other people based on various contextual cues), Using Emotions to Facilitate Thinking (the ability to use emotions and moods to support and guide intellectual processing), Understanding emotions (skills necessary to comprehend and label basic and complex emotions), Managing Emotions (the ability to monitor and modify own emotions in order to enhance emotional and intellectual growth). Within this approach EI is measured similarly to cognitive intelligence via performance tests (Mayer et al., 2003). In another popular model, EI is defined as people’s perceptions of their emotional world, or a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies (e.g., Petrides et al., 2007; Petrides et al., 2011). It is believed that one’s perception of emotional effectiveness is, at least partially, associated with genuine emotional skills (e.g., Van der Linden et al., 2017). In this approach, EI is assessed via rating scales and self-report questionnaires. It need to be acknowledged that in the research literature EI based on performance tests is typically labeled ‘ability EI’, whereas self-reported EI is often labeled ‘trait EI’ (e.g., Zeidner et al., 2009). In the current article we use this terminology.

To date, a few studies have examined the relationship between EI and narcissism, with the latter being mainly considered in the grandiose version (Petrides et al., 2011; Vonk et al., 2013; Austin et al., 2014; Nagler et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015; Czarna et al., 2016; Jauk et al., 2016). The empirical data in this area are rather ambiguous; however, a deeper analysis of existing findings provides some general observations. In Table 1 we present previous studies linking narcissism with EI. First, in most studies using self-report EI measures (e.g., Trait EI Questionnaire by Petrides and Furnham, 2006; The EI Scale by Schutte et al., 1998) a positive correlation with grandiose narcissism has been reported (Petrides et al., 2011; Vonk et al., 2013; Austin et al., 2014; Nagler et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015); though there were studies with no significant association (study 2 by Munro et al., 2005; Austin et al., 2014; Jauk et al., 2016). The ability measures of EI (e.g., Mayer Salovey Caruso EI Test by Mayer et al., 2003; The Test of EI by Śmieja et al., 2014) exhibit much weaker correlations with grandiose narcissism, hardly reaching significance level (−0.16 in Zhang et al., 2015; -0.06 in Czarna et al., 2016; -0.11 in Jauk et al., 2016). It is also worth mentioning that one recent study explored the tendency of individuals with high grandiose narcissism to overestimate their EI (Lobbestael et al., 2016). It has been found that, similarly to cognitive abilities, those scoring high on grandiose narcissism show inflated views of their emotional abilities. However, this study used a measure assessing mentalizing abilities rather than global EI.

TABLE 1. Articles reporting correlation between narcissism and emotional intelligence.

In the case of vulnerable narcissism, there is less empirical evidence regarding its relation with EI. Actually, we found only two studies, both reporting a negative correlation between vulnerable narcissism and self-report EI (Vonk et al., 2013; Austin et al., 2014).

The Current Study

In the current study we examined, for the first time, the association between both types of narcissism and different conceptualizations of EI. Specifically, our research encompassed measures of vulnerable and grandiose narcissism as well as trait (self-report) and ability (performance) EI. Below, we formulate predictions based on the previous studies and theoretical considerations.

When it comes to vulnerable narcissism, the existing empirical data (Vonk et al., 2013; Austin et al., 2014) suggest that it should be negatively correlated with trait EI (H1). Moreover, vulnerable narcissists have a tendency toward negative self-views (e.g., Miller et al., 2011). In the case of ability EI, we expect similar tendency (an inverse relationship; H2); however, this expectation is speculative in nature and based mostly on the common correlates of both constructs. Studies show that ability EI is positively related to empathy (Ciarrochi et al., 2000) while the latter is associated with low level of vulnerable narcissism (Lannin et al., 2014). Moreover, Lopes et al. (2005) found that emotion regulation abilities are connected to prosocial tendencies, which are rather foreign to people with a high level of vulnerable narcissism (e.g., Miller et al., 2011). Additionally, such characteristics of vulnerable narcissism as emotional instability, concentration on self (eg., Wink, 1991; Miller et al., 2011), difficulties in sustaining relationships, and taking others’ perspective (eg., Vonk et al., 2013) are typically related with low ability EI (Mayer et al., 2004).

In the case of grandiose narcissism, its relation with EI seems to be much more puzzling. As noted above, in most studies this type of narcissism was positively correlated with self-report EI (Petrides et al., 2011; Vonk et al., 2013; Austin et al., 2014; Nagler et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015). Moreover, people with a high level of grandiose narcissism have been found to overestimate their abilities, including emotional skills (Lobbestael et al., 2016). Indeed, socio-emotional skills are regarded as desirable in society (e.g., Czarna et al., 2016) and may be associated with an inflated narcissistic self-image (e.g., Miller et al., 2011). Thus, we hypothesized that grandiose narcissism will be positively associated with trait EI (H3).

The relationship between grandiose narcissism and ability EI seems the most difficult to predict. Some research results indicate that grandiose narcissism might be related to better performance on tasks assessing theory of mind, and higher self-report empathy (Delič et al., 2011; Vonk et al., 2013; Jonason and Kroll, 2015). Moreover, individuals with a high level of grandiose narcissism tend to manipulate and exploit other people, which suggests that their emotional competencies might be high (Nagler et al., 2014). Thus, these findings would suggest a positive association of grandiose narcissism with ability EI. However, the existing studies directly linking these two constructs show slightly negative, but rather marginal correlation (Zhang et al., 2015; Czarna et al., 2016; Jauk et al., 2016). Taking all these considerations together, we believe that there is no sufficient evidence to postulate a clear hypothesis here.

Finally, a question arises about the congruence between narcissists’ self-views and their actual abilities. Taking into account the inflated self-views and a tendency to overestimate abilities in grandiose narcissism, we expected that grandiose narcissism will be positively associated with trait EI controlling for participants’ ability EI (H4). In the case of vulnerable narcissism, we expected that it will be negatively related to trait EI and that this association will be attenuated controlling for ability EI (H5). It needs to be acknowledged, however, that H4 and H5 are more exploratory, because the existing research literature does not provide direct evidence for these expectations.

Materials and Methods

All data were uploaded to Open Science Framework and are available under the following address:


The study involved 249 volunteer participants (174 female, 75 male) recruited via publicly accessible social networking websites. The mean age of the sample was 22.67 years (SD = 5.42). It was composed of undergraduate students (61.4%) and individuals holding a Master’s degree (38.6%). Study was conducted using an online survey. This sample size allowed to detect effects of correlation of 0.20 with the power equal 0.90. This study, including the consent process meets the standards of the ethics committee of Faculty of Psychology at University of Warsaw. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Participation was voluntary and participants were allowed to reject or withdraw at any point with no disadvantage to their treatments.


Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale

To assess vulnerable narcissism we used the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS) by Hendin and Cheek (1997) in the Polish version (Czarna et al., 2014). This measure is composed of 10 items with a five point Likert-like response scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), e.g., My feelings are easily hurt by ridicule or the slighting remarks of others; When I enter a room I often become self-conscious and feel that the eyes of others are upon me. The sum of items creates an index of vulnerable narcissism. In the present sample α = 0.73.

Narcissistic Personality Inventory

Grandiose narcissism was assessed with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin and Hall, 1979). We used the validated Polish adaptation of the NPI (Bazińska and Drat-Ruszczak, 2000), which contains 34 items. The items were selected basing on the factor analysis (loadings exceeding 0.40) and represented the following subscales of the NPI: Authority (11 items), Self-Sufficiency (7), Vanity (5), and Exhibitionism (11). Respondents rated their degree of endorsement of each statement using a 5-point Likert-like response format, from 1 (does not apply to me) to 5 (applies to me), e.g., I like to be the center of attention; I like to be complimented. The sum of items creates an index of grandiose narcissism. NPI achieved high levels internal consistency (α = 0.93).

The Test of Emotional Intelligence

Ability EI was measured with The Test of EI (Test Inteligencji Emocjonalnej, TIE; Śmieja et al., 2014). The measure is based on Salovey and Mayer (1990) concept of EI and consists of four subscales: Perception, Understanding, Facilitation, and Management of emotions. Each of them is comprised of six item parcels. Each parcel describes one situation posing an emotional problem, in which there are three possible alternatives.

TIE is divided into two parts. In the first one (Perception and Understanding) respondents are asked to evaluate the probability of experiencing alternative emotions by the person involved in a situation on a 5-point Likert scale, from 1 (very bad answer) to 5 (very good answer). In the second part (Facilitation and Management) participants again use a 5-point Likert-like response format, from 1 (very ineffective) to 5 (very effective), to judge the level of appropriateness of three possible actions that may be taken to solve the problem, e.g.:

Sophie hits the table with a fist. She frowns, her face is glowing, and her teeth are clenched. Most probably:

(a) She is watching a popular show on TV


(b) Once again she hurt her finger while cutting bread


(c) She was just told by a colleague that he will not help her to prepare an important project, because he is leaving for a last-minute holiday


The similarity of a testee’s responses with the answers given by the professionals is the basis of the final scoring. The group of experts was comprised of psychotherapists, HR specialists and trainers. There are two final results (sum of items), one for each of the branches and one for the whole test. TIE shows high overall reliability (α = 0.88).

Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire – Short Form

We used The Trait EI Questionnaire – Short Form (TEIQue – SF; Petrides and Furnham, 2006) adapted into Polish by Wytykowska and Petrides (2007) to measure self–assessed EI. The scale, based on the full form of the TEIQue, has 30 items ranked on a scale ranging from 1 (completely disagree) to 7 (completely agree), e.g., Many times, I can’t figure out what emotion I’m feeling; Expressing my emotions with words is not a problem for me. The sum of items creates a total score of trait EI. The internal consistency was high (α = 0.79).

Measures were administered in the following order: NPI, HSNS, TEIQue – SF, TIE.


In order to test H1 – H3 Pearson’s correlations between narcissisms and EI measures were calculated. Furthermore, series of regression analyses were conducted to examine how each of the EI measure is uniquely associated with grandiose and with vulnerable narcissism (tests of H4 and H5).


In Table 2 we present correlations and descriptive statistics of all variables. Both grandiose and vulnerable narcissism highly correlated with trait EI; however, in opposite directions: positive (0.49; p < 0.001) and negative (−0.55, p < 0.001), respectively. Thus H1 and H3 were confirmed. Neither grandiose (−0.11, p = 0.077) nor vulnerable narcissism (−0.12, p = 0.068) were significantly related to the general score of the ability EI; however they did correlate with the TIE subscales. Specifically, vulnerable narcissism negatively correlated with Facilitation (−0.24, p < 0.001) and Management (−0.13, p = 0.046), which partially confirms H2. Grandiose narcissism was negatively connected to the Understanding subscale (−0.15, p = 0.017).

TABLE 2. Correlations and descriptive statistics for all variables (N = 249).

Subsequently, we conducted a series of regression analyses in order to test H4 and H5 and for deeper understanding of the obtained results. First, we examined the unique contribution of each EI measure for both types of narcissism. We conducted two regressions with both EIs analyzed jointly as predictors and each narcissism as a dependent variable (see Table 3). The analyses revealed that trait EI explained more variance than ability EI in both types of narcissism. Moreover, ability EI taken together with trait EI became significant in predicting grandiose narcissism. Interestingly, the two EI measures showed opposite directions of associations: trait was positively (β = 0.52, p < 0.001) and ability was negatively (β = -0.19, p = 0.001) related to grandiose narcissism. In the case of vulnerable narcissism, ability EI (β = -0.04, p = 0.496) remained a non-significant predictor when analyzed together with trait EI (β = -0.54, p < 0.001).

TABLE 3. Regression analyses with the ability and trait emotional intelligence as predictors and grandiose narcissism (model 1), and vulnerable narcissism (model 2) as dependent variables.


We examined the relationship between narcissism and EI. The results suggest that to fully understand the complex relations between these constructs, the two types of narcissism as well as various conceptualizations of EI need to be taken into account. We have found that grandiose and vulnerable narcissisms were strongly associated with trait EI, although the correlations had different signs: positive and negative, respectively. Thus H1 and H2 were confirmed. Although we expected vulnerable narcissism to be negatively associated with ability EI (H2), both narcissisms did not significantly correlate with this type of EI. These results are consistent with some previous findings (Petrides et al., 2011; Vonk et al., 2013; Austin et al., 2014; Nagler et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015; Czarna et al., 2016; Jauk et al., 2016), however, the fact that we have included two different measures of EI allowed for further analyses, which provided us with especially interesting results discussed below.

Furthermore, we conducted regression models to test how the two narcissisms are uniquely associated with each EI measure controlling for the other EI. The zero-order correlations indicated that grandiose narcissism was positively correlated with trait EI, and weakly (non-significant) and negatively with ability EI, however, regression models revealed interesting suppression effects. A suppressor effect is observed when the validity coefficient of one variable is enhanced by the inclusion of another variable to the model (Paulhus et al., 2004). In our study, the associations of grandiose narcissism with the two EIs became more pronounced when the three variables were analyzed together. In all such models, grandiose narcissism was negatively and significantly related to ability EI. It seems then that when the common variance of the two EIs is removed, the discrepancy between grandiose narcissism’s relations with each EI becomes more visible. It is possible, that when one’s realistic perception of his/her EI is controlled, the positive illusions about EI might be observed. This result is in line with our H4 as well as other data showing that inflated self-views are one of the defining characteristics of grandiose narcissism (Campbell and Foster, 2007). Indeed, a number of studies have indicated that individuals scoring high on grandiose narcissism tend to overestimate their qualities, especially agentic features, such as cognitive ability. For instance, a positive correlation between narcissism and self-evaluated intelligence has been observed even after controlling for objectively measured cognitive ability (Gabriel et al., 1994; Paulhus and Williams, 2002; Zajenkowski and Czarna, 2015). Interestingly, it has been already shown that in the domain of emotion recognition, grandiose narcissists also overestimate their skills. In a recent study Lobbestael, et al. (2016) showed a lack of convergence between subjective and objective levels of emotional ability (i.e., the Reading the Mind in the Eye test vs. subjective opinion about emotional recognition skill). This finding as well as our results imply that narcissists think highly of themselves on a number of agentic domains including emotional ability. The question arises about the role of this inflated self-view. Our results appear to be in line with the extended agency model of narcissism according to which an inflated view of one’s own ability is an important strategy serving a self-regulatory function to maintain positive feelings (Campbell and Foster, 2007). Indeed, the self-enhancement of individuals with high grandiose narcissism was found to positively influence their well-being (Dufner et al., 2012). Moreover, prior work on intelligence indicate that self-enhancement may shape self-esteem in grandiose narcissism (Dufner et al., 2012). Thus, it would be interesting to include the latter variable in future studies to examine its role in the link between narcissism and the EI overestimation.

Vulnerable narcissism was negatively correlated with trait EI, however it was not related to global ability EI in any of the tested models. Moreover, the relationship between both EIs decreased when they were analyzed in one model with vulnerable narcissism. Thus individuals with high vulnerable narcissism perceive their emotional abilities as rather poor. People scoring high on vulnerable narcissism are concentrated on themselves, but at the same time, in contrast to grandiose narcissists, they exhibit depression and low self-esteem, and perhaps are less positively biased.

The present study also revealed that although vulnerable narcissism did not correlate with the global ability EI, it was relatively highly associated with the facilitation subscale from the ability EI measure. Facilitation reflects an ability to assimilate emotions with thinking and problem solving as well as to use emotion to direct attention to important information (Mayer et al., 2004). One may wonder to what extent the difficulties in this area might be responsible for the affective problems observed in vulnerable narcissism. Particularly, individuals high on vulnerable narcissism display a tendency toward negative emotionality including depression, anxiety, anger, little positive affect, and a substantial degree of negative affect (Miller et al., 2011). Additionally, they exhibit biased social perception in the form of increased levels of hostility and mistrust (Krizan and Johar, 2015). It is possible that low facilitation ability makes it difficult to disengage their thoughts from negative emotions, which in turn leads to biased information processing. However, this interpretation is rather speculative and further studies are necessary to examine the role of facilitation in vulnerable narcissism.

Some researchers suggest that narcissists (mainly grandiose) might exhibit an increased ability to read and assess others’ emotions, which is subsequently utilized to formulate strategies with which they can acquire what they want (Jonason and Kroll, 2015). Our study does not support this hypothesis about narcissism’s superior ability pertaining to emotion perception; however, it needs to be mentioned that neither type of narcissism showed severe deficits in this area, being only weakly associated with the perception subscale from the ability EI measure.

Finally, our study sheds some light on the nature of EI. We found that both types of narcissism were highly associated with trait EI and, trait EI and ability EI were only weakly correlated. This finding seems to be in accordance with the theoretical background and the empirical data on trait EI. Petrides (e.g., Petrides et al., 2007) emphasized that trait EI reflects people’s perceptions of their emotional abilities and thus is a part of personality assessed via self-report questionnaires. Indeed, trait EI is highly correlated with personality traits (e.g., Pearson’s rs exceeding 0.60 in the cases of extraversion and neuroticism), and much lower with ability EI (Petrides et al., 2007). Our results are consistent with this view and indicate that the two types of narcissism are important correlates of trait EI. These findings suggest that narcissism may play a substantial role in understanding EI at both the conceptual and measurement level.

Some evident limitations of our study should be noted. First, in the investigated sample females were overrepresented, while previous studies show that men have higher levels of grandiose narcissism (e.g., Grijalva et al., 2015) and women have higher EI (Mayer et al., 1999; Petrides and Furnham, 2000). Thus the difficulties in EI among narcissists might more pronounced in a more differentiated sample. Second, the present investigation was conducted via online survey and more controllable laboratory conditions, especially for performance EI, would increase the reliability of the results.

Author Contributions

MZ and PU designed the study. PU conducted the study. MZ, OM, KS, and PU wrote the manuscript. MZ performed the analyses.


This work was supported from a grant no 2016/23/B/HS6/00312 funded by National Science Centre in Poland.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The reviewer EM and handling Editor declared their shared affiliation at the time of the review.


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Keywords: grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, emotional intelligence, ability, narcissism

Citation: Zajenkowski M, Maciantowicz O, Szymaniak K and Urban P (2018) Vulnerable and Grandiose Narcissism Are Differentially Associated With Ability and Trait Emotional Intelligence. Front. Psychol. 9:1606. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01606

Received: 25 January 2018; Accepted: 13 August 2018;
Published: 28 August 2018.

Copyright © 2018 Zajenkowski, Maciantowicz, Szymaniak and Urban. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Marcin Zajenkowski, [email protected]


Traits grandiose narcissist


Unrealistic sense of superiority and of uniqueness

Not to be confused with grandiose delusion or illusory superiority.

In the field of psychology, the term grandiosity refers to an unrealistic sense of superiority, characterized by a sustained view of one's self as better than others, which is expressed by disdainfully criticising them, overinflating one's own capability and belittling them as inferior; and refers to a sense of personal uniqueness, the belief that few other people have anything in common with oneself, and that one can only be understood by a few, very special people.[1] The personality trait of grandiosity is principally associated with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), but also is a feature in the occurrence and expression of antisocial personality disorder, and the manic and hypomanic episodes of bipolar disorder.[2]

Narcissist-Grandiose (oblivious) Subtype[edit]

Pathological grandiosity has been associated with one of the two subtypes of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (Gabbard, 1989).[3] Characteristics of the narcissist-grandiose subtype (as opposed to the narcissist-vulnerable subtype) include:

  • Being labeled the “oblivious narcissists” as they are oblivious to the impact of their actions on others or how they are perceived.
  • Devaluation and criticism of people that threaten self-esteem.
  • More likely to regulate self-esteem through overt self-enhancement (over-claiming abilities or exaggerating situations to project superiority)
  • Denial of weaknesses. Exaggeration of abilities.
  • Controlling others whilst both belittling (criticizing) and taking credit for their actions.
  • Inflated demands of entitlement, superiority ("Don't you know who I am?"). Exaggerated beliefs of self-importance, superiority, achievement, and ability; manipulative behaviors as well as expectations of obedience, admiration, and entitlement; and preoccupation with “fantasies about success, power, brilliance, beauty, or the perfect mate".
  • Consistent anger when confronted with unmet expectations or any perceived slight or accountability for actions. Prone to easily exploding into rage, overreacting, and possibly even becoming aggressive whenever they feel attacked by even the slightest criticism. Blame shifts when accountable.
  • Diminished awareness of the cultural dissonance between their expectations and reality, along with the impact this has on relationships
  • Overt presentation of grandiose fantasies, wealth, success, and status.
  • Oblivious that expectations of entitlement (overspending, taking advantage) may make a poor impression on other people.
  • Conflict within the environment is generally experienced as external to these individuals (i.e., not their fault), rather than as a measure of their own unrealistic expectations

The differences between grandiose and vulnerable narcissist subtypes have been studied (Dickinson & Pincus, 2003):[4]

This overall finding confirms past theory and research that suggests that these [grandiose subtype] individuals lack knowledge of the impact they have upon others, and thus, have an unrealistic view of themselves in relation to others (Gabbard, 1989, 1998; Kernberg, 1975; Kohut, 1971, 1977). Indeed, this very lack of insight into their impact upon others is what incited Gabbard (1989) to enlist the label “oblivious narcissists” to describe their social presentation and distinguish them from their vulnerable counterparts. Grandiose narcissistic individuals expect another’s immediate and undivided attention, and are oblivious to the effect their direct demands of entitlement have on others. And, by virtue of their ability to maintain the grandiose self through self-enhancement, grandiose narcissistic individuals are less susceptible than their vulnerable peers to the chronic emotional consequences of threats to entitled expectations (e.g., distress, lowered self-esteem, interpersonal fearfulness).

The grandiosity section of the Diagnostic Interview for Narcissism (DIN) (Second edition) is as follows:[5]

  1. The person exaggerates talents, capacity, and achievements in an unrealistic way.
  2. The person believes in their invulnerability or does not recognize their limitations.
  3. The person has grandiose fantasies.
  4. The person believes that they do not need other people.
  5. The person overexamines and downgrades other people's projects, statements, or dreams in an unrealistic manner.
  1. The person regards themselves as unique or special when compared to other people.
  2. The person regards themselves as generally superior to other people.
  3. The person behaves self-centeredly and/or self-referentially.
  4. The person behaves in a boastful or pretentious way.

In mania[edit]

In mania, grandiosity is typically more pro-active and aggressive than in narcissism. The manic character may boast of future achievements[6] or exaggerate their personal qualities.[7]

They may also begin unrealistically ambitious undertakings, before being cut down, or cutting themselves back down, to size.[8]

In psychopathy[edit]

Grandiosity features in Factor 1 Facet 1:Interpersonal in the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) test.[9] Individuals endorsing this criterion appear arrogant and boastful, and may be unrealistically optimistic about their future. The American Psychiatric Association's DSM-5 also notes that persons with antisocial personality disorder often display an inflated self-image, and can appear excessively self-important, opinionated and cocky, and often hold others in contempt.


A distinction is made between individuals exhibiting grandiosity, which includes a degree of insight into their unrealistic thoughts (they are aware that their behavior is considered unusual), in contrast to those experiencing grandiose delusions, who lack this capability for reality-testing. Some individuals may transition between these two states, with grandiose ideas initially developing as "daydreams" that the patient recognises as untrue, but which can subsequently turn into full delusions that the patient becomes convinced reflect reality.[10]

Psychoanalysis and the grandiose self[edit]

Otto Kernberg saw the unhealthily grandiose self as merging childhood feelings of specialness, personal ideals, and fantasies of an ideal parent.[11]

Heinz Kohut saw the grandiose self as a normal part of the developmental process, only pathological when the grand and humble parts of the self became decisively divided.[12] Kohut's recommendations for dealing with the patient with a disordered grandiose self were to tolerate and so re-integrate the grandiosity with the realistic self.[13]

Reactive Attachment Disorder[edit]

The personality trait of grandiosity also is a component of the reactive attachment disorder (RAD), a severe and relatively uncommon attachment disorder that affects children.[14] The expression of RAD is characterized by markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate ways of relating to other people in most social contexts, such as the persistent failure to initiate or to respond to most social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way, known as the "inhibited form" of reactive attachment disorder.[15][16]

See also[edit]


  1. ^Elsa F. Ronningstam (2005). Identifying and Understanding the Narcissistic Personality. Oxford University Press. ISBN .
  2. ^Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) American Psychiatric Association (2000)
  3. ^Gabbard, G. O. (1989). "Narcissists divided into two sub types: vulnerable and grandiose". Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic (53): 527–532.
  4. ^Dickinson, Kelly A.; Pincus, Aaron L. (2003). "Interpersonal Analysis of Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism". Journal of Personality Disorders. 17 (3): 188–207. doi:10.1521/pedi. PMID 12839099.
  5. ^Gunderson J, Ronningstam E, Bodkin A. "The diagnostic interview for narcissistic patients". Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 676-80 (1990)
  6. ^Goffman, Erving (1972). Relations in Public. Penguin. p. 421.
  7. ^Goffman (1972), p. 413 & notes
  8. ^Skynner, Robin; Cleese, John (1994). Families and how to survive them. London. pp. 168–69.
  9. ^Harpur, TJ; Hare, RD; Hakstian, AR (1989). "Two-factor conceptualization of psychopathy: Construct validity and assessment implications". Psychological Assessment. 1 (1): 6–17. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.1.1.6.
  10. ^Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (London 1946) pp. 421, 444
  11. ^Otto F. Kernberg, Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism (London 1990) p. 265
  12. ^Josephine Klein, Our Need for Others (London 1994) p. 222
  13. ^Allen M. Siegal, Heinz Kohut and the psychology of the Self (1996) p. 95
  14. ^Malia C. King. "Reactive Attachment Disorder: A Review"(PDF). Journal of Special Education. 1–4. Archived(PDF) from the original on 2017-01-01.
  15. ^DSM-IV-TR (2000) American Psychiatric Association, p. 129.
  16. ^Schechter DS, Willheim E (July 2009). "Disturbances of Attachment and Parental Psychopathology in Early Childhood". Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 18 (3): 665–686. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2009.03.001. PMC 2690512. PMID 19486844.
3 Faces of Narcissism: Grandiose, Vulnerable, Malignant - DIANA DIAMOND

Grandiose narcissists and decision making: Impulsive, overconfident, and skeptical of experts–but seldom in doubt


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She staggered out of the room, already naked and clearly not sober. Oh, fuck, shampoo, fuck it, give it here, bitch, and fuck you. Got up. You don't like something, so fuck it from here. I handed her champagne, being shocked by such a strange change in image.

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