About the Russian Blue
The sparkling, silvery blue coat and brilliant green eyes of the Russian Blue draw immediate attention to this shorthaired breed. But it’s the intelligent and playful disposition that makes the Russian Blue a perfect pet for most households.
The Russian Blue is a gentle cat with a somewhat shy nature around strangers. They are devoted to and affectionate with their loved ones. Sensitive to their owner’s moods, the Russian Blue will greet you at the door, find a quiet seat next to you, or fetch a toy at playtime. In fact, “fetching” is a favorite pastime for Russians and their owners! Pull out the vacuum cleaner, and the Russian will find a safer and quieter location. Relatively quiet-voiced (except perhaps at mealtime), the Russian Blue appreciates a pat on the head, a window from which to watch the birds, and, of course, the comforts of home. Minimal grooming is required; regular nail clipping, good nutrition, an occasional combing, and lots of petting keep your Russian Blue pet looking spectacular.
Little is known about the origin of the Russian Blue breed, though stories are legendary. Many believe the Russian Blue is a natural breed originating from the Archangel Isles in northern Russia, where the long winters developed a cat with a dense, plush coat. Rumors also abound that the Russian Blue breed descended from the cats kept by the Russian Czars. Assuming the Russian Blue did migrate from northern Russia, it was likely via ship to England and northern Europe in the mid 1860s.
First exhibited at London’s Crystal Palace in 1875 as the “Archangel Cat,” the original Russian Blue competed with all other blue cats. In 1912, the Russian Blue was given a separate class for competition as breeders in England and Scandinavia worked to develop the foundation bloodlines for the contemporary Russian Blue. Although Russian Blues were imported to the United States in the early 1900s, it wasn’t until after World War II that North American breeders began combining the European bloodlines to produce cats with plush, silvery coats, emerald eyes, and the distinctive profile. From the 1960s, the Russian Blue began gaining popularity and has become a favorite at cat shows and at home.
One of the features of the short, silky, dense coat is the plush feel and the lack of constant shedding. The coat color is an even, bright blue, and each guard hair appears as if dipped in silver – giving the Russian a silvery sheen and lustrous appearance. Russian Blues are registered in only one color – blue – and one coat length – short. In contrast to the blue coat, the Russian Blue has large, rounded, wide-set eyes that are vivid green. The head shape is a broad, medium wedge with a flat top and straight nose in profile. Large ears are wide at the base and set rakishly toward the side of the head. The Russian Blue is a medium-sized cat, fine-boned, long, and firmly muscled.
What makes the Russian Blue more than “any other grey cat?” The many years of selective breeding and careful registration of ancestry via pedigrees allowing only blue shorthaired cats has resulted in a breed with a distinctive appearance and a unique personality that sets it apart from other cats…making the Russian Blue an entertaining and affectionate companion to its family and friends.
When choosing your Russian Blue you should look for a reputable breeder, who will undoubtedly have a series of questions for you designed to make sure that you and the Russian Blue are compatible. Do not be surprised if there is a wait of some sort. These wonderful family members are worth it. Usually breeders make kittens available between twelve and sixteen weeks of age when they have had sufficient time with their mother and littermates to be well socialized and old enough to have been fully vaccinated. Keeping your Russian Blue indoors, neutering or spaying, and providing acceptable surfaces (scratching posts) for the natural behavior of scratching are essential elements for maintaining a healthy, long, and joyful life. For more information, please contact the Breed Council Secretary for this breed.
"Blue" CFA Members Exhibit Call for Art
TRUE AND FALSE BLUE
CALL TO ARTISTS
"Blue is the inside of something mysterious and lonely.
I'd look at fish and birds, thinking the sky and water
colored them. The first abyss is blue. An artist must go
beyond the mercy of satin or water-from a gutty hue to
that which is close to royal purple. All seasons and
blossoms in between. Lavender. Theatrical and
outrageous electric. Almost gray. True and false blue.
Water and oil. The gas jet breathing in oblivion. The
unstruck match. The blue of absence. The blue of deep
presence. The insides of something perfect." - Yusef Komunyakaa
LEESBURG CENTER FOR THE ARTS
The theme of the show is the color blue and works should primarily feature the color. Any variety of the
color can be used.
You must be a current member to apply for the show.
New applications can be made online or in person.
All mediums are eligible.
All entries must be original work completed in the last year and not previously shown in a CFA show.
Submissions must include an image of the work, an artist statement, the CFA Artist Application, and the
CFA liability release form.
SUBMISSION DEADLINE: FRIDAY, JULY 23
Opening Reception: Friday, August 6 at CFA
Drop Off Dates: July 26 - 30
Pick Up Dates: August 30 - Sept. 1 ONLY
Maria Stefanovic, Executive Director
Color filter array
In digital imaging, a color filter array (CFA), or color filter mosaic (CFM), is a mosaic of tiny color filters placed over the pixel sensors of an image sensor to capture color information.
The term is also used in reference to e paper devices where it means a mosaic of tiny color filters placed over the grey scale display panel to reproduce color images.
Image sensor overview
Color filters are needed because the typical photosensors detect light intensity with little or no wavelength specificity and therefore cannot separate color information. Since sensors are made of semiconductors, they obey solid-state physics.
The color filters filter the light by wavelength range, such that the separate filtered intensities include information about the color of light. For example, the Bayer filter (shown to the right) gives information about the intensity of light in red, green, and blue (RGB) wavelength regions. The raw image data captured by the image sensor is then converted to a full-color image (with intensities of all three primary colors represented at each pixel) by a demosaicing algorithm which is tailored for each type of color filter. The spectral transmittance of the CFA elements along with the demosaicing algorithm jointly determine the color rendition. The sensor's passbandquantum efficiency and span of the CFA's spectral responses are typically wider than the visible spectrum, thus all visible colors can be distinguished. The responses of the filters do not generally correspond to the CIEcolor matching functions, so a color translation is required to convert the tristimulus values into a common, absolute color space.
The Foveon X3 sensor uses a different structure such that a pixel utilizes properties of multi-junctions to stack blue, green, and red sensors on top of each other. This arrangement does not require a demosaicing algorithm because each pixel has information about each color. Dick Merrill of Foveon distinguishes the approaches as "vertical color filter" for the Foveon X3 versus "lateral color filter" for the CFA.
List of color filter arrays
|Image||Name||Description||Pattern size (pixels)|
|Bayer filter||Very common RGB filter. With one blue, one red, and two green.||2×2|
|RGBE filter||Bayer-like with one of the green filters modified to "emerald"; used in a few Sony cameras.||2×2|
|RYYB filter||One red, two yellow, and one blue;||2×2|
|CYYM filter||One cyan, two yellow, and one magenta; used in a few cameras of Kodak.||2×2|
|CYGM filter||One cyan, one yellow, one green, and one magenta; used in a few cameras.||2×2|
|RGBW Bayer||Traditional RGBW similar to Bayer and RGBE patterns.||2×2|
|RGBW #1||Three example RGBW filters from Kodak, with 50% white. (See Bayer filter#Modifications)||4×4|
|X-Trans||Fujifilm-specific RGB matrix filter, with a large pattern, studied for diminishing Moiré effect.||6×6|
|Quad Bayer||Similar to Bayer filter, however with 4x blue, 4x red, and 8x green.|
Used by Sony, also known as Tetracell by Samsung and 4-cell by OmniVision.
|RYYB Quad Bayer||Similar to Quad Bayer filter, but with RYYB instead of RGGB. i.e. 4x blue, 4x red, and 8x yellow. |
First used in the Leica camera sensor of the Huawei P30 series smartphones.
|Nonacell||Similar to Bayer filter, however with 9x blue, 9x red, and 18x green.||6×6|
|RCCC||Used in the automotive industry. A monochrome sensor is desired for maximum sensitivity, with the red channel required for regions of interest such as traffic lights and rear lights.||2x2|
|RCCB||Used in the automotive industry. Similar to the Bayer sensor except the green pixels are clear, providing more low-light sensitivity and less noise.||2x2|
An RGBW matrix (from red, green, blue, white) is a CFA that includes "white" or transparent filter elements that allow the photodiode to respond to all colors of light; that is, some cells are "panchromatic", and more of the light is detected, rather than absorbed, compared to the Bayer matrix. Sugiyama filed for a patent on such an arrangement in 2005.Kodak announced several RGBW CFA patents in 2007, all of which have the property that when the panchromatic cells are ignored, the remaining color filtered cells are arranged such that their data can be processed with a standard Bayer demosaicing algorithm.
A CYGM matrix (cyan, yellow, green, magenta) is a CFA that uses mostly secondary colors, again to allow more of the incident light to be detected rather than absorbed. Other variants include CMY and CMYW matrices.
Manufacture of the image sensor CFA
Diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ)-novolacphotoresist is one material used as the carrier for making color filters from color dyes or pigments. There is some interference between the dyes and the ultraviolet light needed to properly expose the polymer, though solutions have been found for this problem. Color photoresists sometimes used include those with chemical monikers CMCR101R, CMCR101G, CMCR101B, CMCR106R, CMCR106G, and CMCR106B.
A few sources discuss other specific chemical substances, attending optical properties, and optimal manufacturing processes of color filter arrays.
For instance, Nakamura said that materials for on-chip color filter arrays fall into two categories: pigment and dye. Pigment based CFAs have become the dominant option because they offer higher heat resistance and light resistance compared to dye based CFAs. In either case, thicknesses ranging up to 1 micrometre are readily available.
Theuwissen says "Previously, the color filter was fabricated on a separate glass plate and glued to the CCD (Ishikawa 81), but nowadays, all single-chip color cameras are provided with an imager which has the color filter on-chip processed (Dillon 78) and not as a hybrid." He provides a bibliography focusing on the number, types, aliasing effects, moire patterns, and spatial frequencies of the absorptive filters.
Some sources indicate that the CFA can be manufactured separately and affixed after the sensor has been manufactured, while other sensors have the CFA manufactured directly on the surface of the imager. Theuwissen makes no mention of the materials utilized in CFA manufacture.
At least one early example of an on-chip design utilized gelatin filters (Aoki et al., 1982). The gelatin is sectionalized, via photolithography, and subsequently dyed. Aoki reveals that a CYWG arrangement was used, with the G filter being an overlap of the Y and C filters.
Filter materials are manufacturer specific. Adams et al. state "Several factors influence the CFA's design. First, the individual CFA filters are usually layers of transmissive (absorptive) organic or pigment dyes. Ensuring that the dyes have the right mechanical properties—such as ease of application, durability, and resistance to humidity and other atmospheric stresses—is a challenging task. This makes it difficult, at best, to fine-tune the spectral responsivities.".
Given that the CFAs are deposited on the image sensor surface at the BEOL (back end of line, the later stages of the integrated circuit manufacturing line), where a low-temperature regime must be rigidly observed (due to the low melting temperature of the aluminum metalized "wires" and the substrate mobility of the dopants implanted within the bulk silicon), organics would be preferred over glass. On the other hand, some CVD silicon oxide processes are low temperature processes.
Ocean Optics has indicated that their patented dichroic filter CFA process (alternating thin films of ZnS and Cryolite) can be applied to spectroscopic CCDs. Gersteltec sells photoresists that possesses color filter properties.
Some pigment and dye molecules used in CFAs
In U.S.P.# 4,808,501, Carl Chiulli cites the use of 5 chemicals, three of which are C.I. #12715, AKA Solvent Red 8; Solvent Yellow 88; and C.I. # 61551, Solvent Blue 36. In U.S.P. # 5,096,801 Koya et al., of Fuji Photo Film company, list some 150-200 chemical structures, mainly azo dyes and pyrazolone-diazenyl, but fail to provide chemical names, CAS Registry numbers, or Colour Index numbers.
Optically efficient CFA implementation
Nakamura provides a schematic and bibliographic items illustrating the importance of microlenses, their f-number, and the interplay with the CFA and CCD array. Further, a short discussion of anti-reflection films is offered, though Janesick's work appears is more concerned with photon–silicon interaction. Early work on microlenses and on the three-CCD/prism cameras stress the importance of a fully integrated design solution for CFAs. The camera system, as a whole, benefits from careful consideration of CFA technologies and their interplay with other sensor properties.
There are three primary methods for reproducing color on e paper displays. One uses micro spheres in various pigments, such as the limited color range three pigment Spectra displays or more faithful four pigment Advanced Color ePaper, both by E Ink. This method suffers from often slow refresh rates as with several pigments the display must perform refreshes for each pigment. As with grey scale units, after the display is updated the device does not require power to keep the image on screen.
The second common method, such as in E Ink Kaleido, uses a typical grey scale e paper display behind a transparent color layer. The color layer is a LCD based CFA. When displaying grey scale images the device runs at its native resolution, for instance, 300 pixels per inch (PPI). However, due to the CFA, the resolution of the device drops when displaying color images, say to 100 PPI. When the image to be displayed consists of both a colored and a black and white section, for example when a book page comprises plain text as well as a color photo, some e book devices may display the photo at the reduced resolution while the text is at the normal resolution. As the CFA is LCD based, the CFA requires constant power to run and uses more energy.
The third method, as in ClearInk, uses a CFA consisting of a front layer of wells with hemispherical bottoms above a layer of fluid containing black charged spheres. When the spheres are away from the hemispheres, the hemispheres reflect brightly due to total internal reflection. When the black spheres are moved near to the hemispheres, the amount of reflection drops. The refresh rate on video versions of these devices is fast enough for video playback (33 Hz on the device, compared to 25 Hz for PAL television or 29.97 Hz for NTSC television). They require more energy to operate than a plain E Ink display but much less than a LCD based display.
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Sameer Somal is the CEO & Co-Founder of Blue Ocean Global Technology. He is a frequent speaker at conferences on digital transformation, online reputation management, search engine optimization, relationship capital and ethics. Fundamental to his work at Blue Ocean Global Technology, Sameer leads collaboration with an exclusive group of PR, Law, Digital Marketing, and Web-Development agency partners. He helps clients build, monitor and repair their digital presence. Sameer is a published writer and Internet Defamation subject matter expert witness. In collaboration with the Philadelphia Bar Foundation, he authors continuing legal education (CLE) programs and is a member of the Legal Marketing Association (LMA) 2030 Task Force. Sameer proudly serves on the board of the CFA Institute Seminar for Global Investors, College Possible and Girl Power Talk. He is an active member of the Society of International Business Fellows
Current positions with CFA Institute & CFP Board:
• CFAI Institute Talkshow: The Topic @ Hand, Host
• CFA Institute Financial Analysts Seminar, Board of Regents
• CFA Institute Global Approved Speakers List (ASL), Member
• CFA Institute Exam Grading, Senior Grader
• CFP Board Council on Education, Member
• CFP Board Women’s Initiative (WIN), Advocate
Blue Ocean Global Technology serves clients and agency partners in 40+ countries. Kodak and Blockbuster exemplify how quickly the average lifespan of a company listed in the S&P 500 significantly decreased from 67 years in the 1920's to 15 years today. We have completed 3000+ web development, portal, eCommerce, and software projects over the past 15 years. We are Online Reputation (ORM) Experts, which includes building a positive reputation around select key words and mitigating a negative reputation on google.
Recent Speaking Engagements include:
New York State Bar (Albany, NY)
Scotiabank Executive Strategy Retreat (Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands)
Project Management Institute (Los Angeles, CA)
Montgomery County Paralegals Association (Bluebell, PA)
Legal Marketing Association (Orlando, FL)
Empowering A Billion Women (Austin, TX)
Legal Marketing Association (Philadelphia, PA)
CFA Institute VBA Netherlands (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Clear Law Institute (Arlington, VA)
Mobile Growth Summit (New York, NY)
FPA National BE Conference (Baltimore, MD)
Benchbar Conference (Atlantic City, NJ)
Legal Week (New York, NY)
The US State Department’s Foreign Service Institute (McLean, VA)
Global Digital Marketing Summit, Mick Law (Phoenix, AZ)
Dimensional Fund Advisors (Austin, TX)
SEI Investments (Oaks, PA)
The Pennsylvania Bar Institute (Philadelphia, PA)
The Philippines HR Summit (Manilla, Philippines)
Women Economic Forum (Delhi, India)
CFA Institute Leaders Conference (San Jose)
The LavaCon Content Strategy Conference (Las Vegas, NV)
Georgetown University (Washington, D.C.)
NAPFA Annual Conference (Phoenix, AZ)
Finance Logix Technology Conference (Las Vegas, NV)
FPA of New York (New York, NY)
CFA Institute Wins Prestigious Diversity, Equity & Inclusion Award
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Charlottesville, United States27 Sep 2021
CFA Institute, the global association of investment professionals, announces that it won a coveted Brandon Hall Group Gold award for excellence in the Best Diversity, Equity & Inclusion Strategy category.
By forging a new people-centric and data-driven D&I strategy called “The ABCs of Inclusion,” CFA Institute, in partnership with Blue Ocean Brain, engaged its global workforce on a journey of awareness, building skills, and making changes to mission-critical inclusion and diversity practices -- one that has yielded strong benefits both internally and externally to its constituents.
The resulting execution framework for the new strategy was the The ABCs of Inclusion, a program that encouraged and empowered every individual within CFA Institute to become aware, build skills, and implement change. The ABCs of Inclusion framework anchored an operational strategy that:
- Drove consideration of policy and practice changes to help identify and remediate areas and processes that could allow for biased decision-making.
- Guided internal advocacy in employee relations matters.
- Provided ongoing educational offerings to help all employees create awareness, build skills, and feel confident in their ability to create change.
“The ABCs of Inclusion offer a healthy balance of challenge and support that results in behavior changes that improve the workplace and personal lives of our employees,” said Kelli Palmer, Ph.D., Head, Global Inclusion & Diversity and Corporate Citizenship at CFA Institute. “The Blue Ocean Brain platform is a key element of the learning component of the strategy, offering just in time microlearning to meet ongoing and evolving needs. This partnership is producing results, and we are appreciative of the recognition from Brandon Hall Group.”
“Best-practice companies understand that diversity, equity and inclusion is a journey that requires continuous learning moments to drive real change,” said Claire Herring, CEO, Blue Ocean Brain. “CFA Institute is challenging the investment management industry to think deeply about the impact biases have on work culture and employee performance. They are shining a bright light on important matters in pursuit of creating open, fair, and inclusive work cultures. Blue Ocean Brain is honored to partner with them in this journey and to have this partnership recognized with such a prestigious award.”
“Brandon Hall Group Excellence Awards in 2021 provide much-needed and well-deserved recognition to organizations that went above and beyond to support their stakeholders during the unprecedented disruption of the COVID-19 pandemic,” said Brandon Hall Group COO and leader of the HCM Excellence Awards Program, Rachel Cooke. “The awards provide validation of best practices in all areas of HCM at a time when they have never been more important to employers, employees and customers.”
Entries were evaluated by a panel of veteran, independent senior industry experts, Brandon Hall Group analysts and executives based upon these criteria: fit the need, design of the program, functionality, innovation, and overall measurable benefits. The full list of award winners can be found at https://www.brandonhall.com/excellenceawards/excellence-diversityinclusion.php?year=2021
-- ENDS --
About CFA Institute
CFA Institute is the global association of investment professionals that sets the standard for professional excellence and credentials. The organization is a champion of ethical behavior in investment markets and a respected source of knowledge in the global financial community. Our aim is to create an environment where investors’ interests come first, markets function at their best, and economies grow. There are more than 175,000 CFA® charterholders worldwide in more than 164 markets. CFA Institute has nine offices worldwide and 160 local societies.
For more information, visit www.cfainstitute.org or follow us on Twitter at @CFAInstitute and on LinkedIn.
About Blue Ocean Brain
Blue Ocean Brain provides research-based, interactive microlearning to help companies of all sizes and industries develop a high-performing, inclusive culture of learning. Designed to deliver learning the way the brain works best, our modern, high-impact content can upskill even the busiest and hardest to reach employees in the competencies that matter most today, including diversity and inclusion, leadership development, emotional intelligence, resilience, well-being, and more. With flexible delivery options, unsurpassed service, and award-winning learning content, Blue Ocean Brain delivers world-class results to companies in over 50 countries across the globe.
About Brandon Hall Group
Brandon Hall Group operates the largest and longest running awards program in Human Capital Management. As an independent HCM research and analyst firm they conduct studies in Learning and Development, Talent Management, Leadership Development, Diversity, Equity & Inclusion, Talent Acquisition and HR/Workforce Management. These benchmark studies help organizations by providing strategic insights for executives and practitioners responsible for growth and business results.
He took off his shorts and panties, his finger immediately slipped into my hole, extremely wide, moved around the circumference, too thin, not that. I squeezed it like a mouth. He inserted a member, sharp, fast, hungry movements. the first orgasm, I groaned and immediately passed out, there are no words, I just felt how he was coming, sticky streams tickling.
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His penis was long and thick, and he tried to push it as deep as possible, rubbing the head of the tonsils and trying to get into the larynx and. Esophagus. From this, Katya gagged, drool began to flow from her mouth, and tears from her eyes from which all the cosmetics smeared and flowed.